Breaking Into The Trade Game: A Small Business Guide

This publication is the product of a private/public sector
initiative between the U.S. Small Business Administration and
AT&T. SBA’s participation in this co-sponsorship activity does
not constitute an expressed or implied endorsement of the
co-sponsors’ or participants’ opinions, products or services (SBA
Authorization Code #93-13-4924710-1). For more information on
SBA’s programs, call 1-800-U-ASK-SBA.


Breaking Into The Trade Game: A Small Business Guide to
Exporting was produced under the guidance of G. A. Chiaruttini,
Deputy Director, Office of International Trade, U.S. Small
Business Administration. Special recognition is given to the
Editorial Staff of Colleen Allen, Catherine Funkhouser and
Patricia Lefevre, Export Development Specialists, Office of
International Trade. A special thanks to Sonja Katharina Satl
who provided meticulous editorial support for this project.
Kathy Parker and Sheldon Snook, Office of International Trade;
Ray Williams, Regional International Trade Officer, Kansas City,
Missouri; and Gene Brosterhous, International Trade Director,
National SCORE Office, also provided additional editorial
support. Developing Your International Business Plan was written
at the Lake Michigan College Small Business Development Center
(SBDC) and International Business Center. The materials and
worksheets were adapted from the Oregon SBDC publication, “Your
International Business Plan” at Portland Community College. The
Lake Michigan College SBDC is partially funded under Cooperative
Agreement No. SB-2M-00092-09 by the U.S. Small Business
Administration. Layout and cover design by Signal
Communications, Bethesda, Maryland.

Breaking Into The Trade Game: A Small Business Guide to
Exporting was produced by the U.S. Small Business Administration
with the assistance of The Global Source, Inc.


The U.S. Small Business Administration”s (SBA) Office of
International Trade (OIT) developed this Trade Guide as an
information tool to assist American business develop
international markets. This Guide will help answer questions and
take the mystery out of exporting. The United States government
has committed enormous resources to help small businesses, like
yours, reach overseas markets. Did you know that:

. the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) employs 76
District International Trade Officers and 10 Regional
International Trade Officers throughout the United States as well
has a 10-person international trade staff in Washington, D.C.;
. the SBA, through its Service Corps of Retired Executives
(SCORE) program, oversees 850 volunteers with international trade
experience to provide one-on-one counseling to active and
new-to-export businesses;
. the SBA made 348 loans nationally to exporters for more than
$123 million in FY 1991 and 617 loans for more than $241 million
in FY 1992;
. the SBA supports over 900 Small Business Development Centers
(SBDCs). Some SBDCs have designated international trade centers;
all SBDCs provide export counseling, referral and/or training;
. the SBA coordinates the Export Legal Assistance Network
(ELAN), a nationwide group of international trade attorneys who
provide free initial consultations to small businesses on export
related matters;
. the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) International Trade
Administration (ITA) U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (US&FCS)
has 68 offices throughout the United States and 120 overseas
posts, representing 95 percent of the world market for U.S.
products and services;
. the ITA in Washington, D.C. has industry-specific
specialists monitoring export opportunities for U.S. products and
services in every sector, from abrasive products to zippers;
. the DOC sponsors 51 District Export Councils (DECs),
comprised of nearly 1,700 business and trade experts available on
a volunteer basis to help U.S. firms develop export strategies;
. the DOC Minority Export Development Consultants Program
supports more than 107 Minority Business Development Centers
throughout the United States;
. the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foreign
Agricultural Service (FAS) maintains a $30 million budget for
export promotion of U.S. commodities through trade fairs and
other activities;
. like DOC, USDA has a large group of country specialists
focusing on a range of products from oilseeds to poultry;
. the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Eximbank) has
trained specialists in 24 states and in Puerto Rico through its
City/State program to provide export financing assistance to
small businesses;
. the Eximbank has financed over $11.3 billion of U.S. exports
in 1991, with 18.4 percent of Eximbank’s authorizations going to
support small business exports?

The SBA and a multitude of federal, state and local government
agencies are ready to assist you in opening new avenues of
opportunity in the international marketplace. With their help,
and with the information contained in this guide, you will find
that access to international markets is possible and profitable.


Small businesses throughout the United States have gained
international exposure and increased profits through exporting.
Consider the case of Novi, Inc., a California-based business.
Company President Michael Stoff tells his story:

“In November of 1986, when I began my business venture, Novi,
Inc., I knew that my Tune-Tote (a stereo system for bicycles) had
the potential to be successful in international markets.
Although I had no prior experience in this area, I began
researching and collecting information on international markets.
I was willing to learn, and by targeting key sources for
information and guidance, I was able to penetrate international
markets in a short period of time. One vital source I used from
the beginning was SBA. Through SBA I was directed to a program
that dealt specifically with business development — the Service
Corps of Retired Executives (SCORE). I was assigned an advisor
who had run his own import/export business for 30 years. The
services of SCORE are provided on a continual basis and are free.

“As I began to pursue exporting, my first step was a thorough
marketing evaluation. I targeted trade shows with a good
presence of international buyers. I also went to DOC for
counseling and information about the rules and regulations of
exporting. I advertised my product in Commercial News USA,
distributed through United States embassies to buyers worldwide.
I utilized DOC’s World Traders Data Reports to get background
information on potential foreign buyers. As a result, I received
60-70 inquiries about Tune-Tote from around the world. Once I
completed my research and evaluation of potential buyers, I
decided which ones would be most suitable to market my product
internationally. Then I decided to grant exclusive
distributorship. In order to effectively communicate with my
international customers, I invested in a fax. I chose a U.S.
bank to handle international transactions. The bank also
provided guidance on methods of payment and how best to receive
and transmit money. This is essential know-how for anyone
wanting to be successful in foreign markets.”

Michael Stoff knows about success in foreign markets. In just
one year of exporting, sales topped $1 million and increased 40
percent in the second year of operations. Today, Novi, Inc. is a
large distributor of wireless intercom systems which exports to
over ten countries.

Breaking Into The Trade Game: A Small Business Guide to
Exporting can assist your company’s international marketing
efforts. This Guide highlights the export success stories of
many small businesses. It is both a comprehensive how-to manual
and reference book providing you with the contacts and resources
to ease your entry into markets around the world.

Part I: Becoming an Export Success Story takes you through
the exporting process with stories of small businesses all around
the United States that have found exporting to be an exciting and
profitable way to expand their business.
Chapter 1: Making the Export Decision includes an
international business plan to assess your company’s export
readiness, business goals and commitment;
Chapter 2: Identifying International Markets explains how
to conduct foreign market research and the resources available to
assist you;
Chapter 3: Foreign Market Entry discusses methods of
distributing your product abroad with an emphasis on exporting;
Chapter 4: The Export Transaction details the steps
involved in making trade happen, including setting prices,
negotiating the sale and determining legal aspects of exporting;
Chapter 5: Export Financing outlines government and private
sector financing resources and methods of payment;
Chapter 6: Transporting Goods Internationally focuses on
moving goods overseas, including packaging and labelling; and
Chapter 7: Strategic Alliances and Foreign Investment
Opportunities explores other methods of market entry beyond
exporting, such as joint ventures and off-shore manufacturing

Part II: The Exporter’s Directory is a comprehensive
directory of contacts and information sources to assist you as
you go global.

Chapter 1 Making the Export Decision

Exporting is crucial to America’s economic health.
Increased exports mean business growth, and business growth means
more jobs. Yet, only a small percentage of potential exporters
take advantage of these opportunities. It is critical for U.S.
businesses to think globally. Your decision to read this book
indicates an interest in exporting. However, you may have
discovered your company is already competing internationally —
foreign-owned companies are competing with you in your “domestic”
markets. The division between domestic and international markets
is becoming increasingly blurred. Your business cannot ignore
international realities if you intend to maintain your market
share and keep pace with your competitors. Making the export
decision requires careful assessment of the advantages and
disadvantages of expanding into new markets. Once the decision
is made to export, an international business plan is essential.
This chapter presents the advantages and disadvantages of
exporting and offers a sample business plan.

Consider some of the specific advantages of
exporting.Exporting can help your business:
. enhance domestic competitiveness
. increase sales and profits
. gain global market share
. reduce dependence on existing markets
. exploit corporate technology and know-how
. extend the sales potential of existing products
. stabilize seasonal market fluctuations
. enhance potential for corporate expansion
. sell excess production capacity
. gain information about foreign competition

In comparison, there are certain disadvantages to
exporting.Your business may be required to:
. develop new promotional material
. subordinate short-term profits to long-term gains
. incur added administrative costs
. allocate personnel for travel
. wait longer for payments
. modify your product or packaging
. apply for additional financing
. obtain special export licenses

These disadvantages may justify a decision to forego exporting at
the present time. For example, if your company’s financial
situation is weak, attempting to sell into foreign markets may be
ill-timed. On the other hand, some companies have been
successful selling abroad even before they have made any sales

Landmark Systems of Vienna, Virginia, had virtually no domestic
sales before it entered the European market. Landmark had
developed a software program for IBM mainframe computers and
located an independent distributor in Europe to represent their
product. In their first year, 80 percent of their sales were
attributed to exporting. In their second year, sales jumped from
$100,000 to $1.4 million — with 70 percent attributable to

As you can see, there are no hard-and-fast rules as to which
businesses should export, and which should not. In the case of
Landmark Systems mentioned above, a foreign distributor produced
results before any significant domestic sales occurred. Landmark
Systems’ decision to export, like that of many other small
business exporters featured in this guide, was based on careful

Behind most export success stories is a plan. Whether
formally written down, or sketched out informally at a meeting of
your management team, an international business plan is an
essential tool to properly evaluate all the factors that would
affect your company’s ability to go international.

An international business plan should define your company’s:
. commitment to international trade;
. export pricing strategy;
. reason for exporting;
. potential export markets and customers;
. methods of foreign market entry;
. exporting costs and projected revenues;
. export financing alternatives;
. legal requirements;
. transportation method; and
. overseas partnership and foreign investment
Creating an international business plan is important for
defining your company’s present status, internal goals and
commitment, but is also required if you plan to seek export
financing assistance. Preparing the plan in advance of making
export loan requests from your bank can save time and money.
Completing and analyzing an international business plan helps you
anticipate future goals, assemble facts, identify constraints and
create an action statement. It should also set forth specific
objectives, an implementation timetable and milestones to gauge

International Business Plan
The purpose of the International Business Plan workbook is to
prepare your business to enter the international marketplace.
This workbook will serve as a step-by-step guide to lead you
through the process of exporting your product to an international
market. The workbook is divided into sections. Each section
must be completed before you start the next section. After you
have completed the entire workbook, you will be ready to develop
an international business plan to export your product. Once the
business plan is completed, an in-depth analysis of your
readiness to export can be completed.


STEP 1: Select the most exportable products to be offered

To identify products with export potential for distribution
internationally, you need to consider products that are
successfully distributed in the domestic market. The product
needs to fill a targeted need for the purchaser in export markets
according to price, value to customer/country and market demand.

What are the major products your business sells?




What products have the best potential for international trade?




STEP 2: Evaluate the products to be offered internationally.

What makes your products unique for an overseas market?




Why will international buyers purchase the products from your



How much inventory will be necessary to sell overseas?




List below the products you believe have export potential.
Indicate the reasons you believe each product will be successful
in the international marketplace.

Products/Services Reasons for Export Success

1. 1.
2. 2.
3. 3.
4. 4.
5. 5.
6. 6.
7. 7.
8. 8.
9. 9.
10. 10.
11. 11.
12. 12.
13. 13.
14. 14.

Decision Point: These products have export potential.



What is the purpose of completing this workbook?

You know that you want to see your company grow through

Five reasons it will be worth your time and effort:
1. Careful completion of this workbook will help evaluate
your level of commitment to exporting.
2. The completed workbook can help you evaluate your
product’s potential for the international trade market.
3. The workbook gives you a tool to help you better manage
your international business operations successfully.
4. The completed workbook will help you communicate your
business ideas to persons outside your business and can be an
excellent starting point for developing an international
financing proposal.
5. Businesses managed are more successful when working
from a business plan.

Can’t I hire someone to do this for me?
No! Nobody will do your thinking or make decisions for you.
This is your business. If the business plan is to be useful, it
must reflect your ideas and efforts — not those of an outsider.

Why is planning so important?
The planning process forces you to look at your future
business operations and anticipate what will happen. This
process better prepares you for the future and makes you more
knowledgeable about your business. Planning is vital for
marketing your product in an international marketplace.
Any firm considering entering into international business
transactions must understand that doing business internationally
is not a simple task nor one for the faint of heart. It is
stimulating and potentially profitable in the long-term but
requires much preparation and research prior to the first

In considering products for the international market, a business
needs to be:

1. Successful in its present domestic operation.
2. Willing to commit its resources of time, people and
capital to the program. Entry into the international market may
take as long as two years to generate profit with cash outflow
during that period.
3. Sensitive and aware of the cultural implications of
doing business internationally.
Developing a business plan helps you assess your present
market situation, business goals, and commitment which will
increase your opportunities for success.

What’s the bottom line for me if I do the plan?
Research shows that small business failure rates among new
businesses are significantly lower for new businesses that have
developed a business plan.

Isn’t planning just for the big companies?
Planning is important for any organization that wants to
approach the future with a plan of action. The future comes
whether you are prepared for it or not. A business plan helps
you anticipate the future and make well-informed decisions
because you have thought about the alternatives you will be

How often do I have to do this?
A plan must be revised as needed, at least once a year.
Planning is a continuous process. You will be surprised how much
easier it is to develop a business plan after the first time.
Plus, after a revision or two you will know more about your
international business market opportunities to export products.


Determining your business goals can be a very exciting and
often challenging process. It is, however, a very important step
in planning your entry into the international marketplace. The
following exercise is intended to help you clarify your short and
long-term business goals.

STEP 1: Define long-term goals.

A) What are your long-term goals for this business in the next 5
years? Examples: increase export sales by ___% annually;
develop country cultural profiles.

B) How will the international trade market help you reach your
long-term goals?

STEP 2: Define short-term goals.

A) For your international business, what are your first year
goals? Examples: attend export seminars, select a freight

B) What are your two-year goals for your international business

STEP 3: Develop an action plan to reach your short-term goals
by using international trade.


STEP 1: Determine your industry’s growth for the next 3 years.

Talk to people in the same business or industry, research
industry-specific magazines, attend trade fairs and seminars.

STEP 2: Research how competitive your industry is in the global

Utilize the National Trade Data Bank (NTDB), obtain
import/export statistics from the Bureau of the Census, and
contact the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) or the U.S.
Department of Commerce (DOC) district office in your area.

STEP 3: Find out your industry’s future growth in the
international market.

Contact the SBA or the U.S. Foreign & Commercial Service (US
& FCS) district office and contact a DOC country or industry desk
in Washington, D.C.

STEP 4: Research federal or state government market studies
that have been conducted on your industry’s potential
international markets.

Contact SBA, your state international trade office, a DOC
country or industry desk in Washington, D.C.

STEP 5: Find export data available on your industry.

Contact your SBA or DOC district office.


STEP 1: Why is your business successful in the domestic market?
What’s your growth rate?

STEP 2: What products do you feel have export potential?

STEP 3: What are the competitive advantages of your products or
business over other domestic and international businesses?

Brainstorm a list of pros and cons for expanding your market
internationally. Based on your product and market knowledge,
determine your probability of success in the international


Pros Cons
1. 1.
2. 2.
3. 3.
4. 4.
5. 5.
6. 6.
7. 7.
8. 8.
9. 9.
10. 10.
11. 11.
12. 12.


0% 25% 50% 75% 100%

Given the market potential for your products in
international markets, how is your product unique?

1. What are your product’s advantages?

2. What are your product’s disadvantages?

3. What are the competitive product’s advantages?

4. What are the competitive product’s disadvantages?

What are the needs that will be filled by your product in a
foreign market?

What competitive products are sold abroad and to whom?

How complex is your product? What skills or special training are
required to:

1. Install your product?

2. Use your product?

3. Maintain your product?

4. Service your product?

What options and accessories are available?

1. Has an aftermarket been developed for your product?

2. What other equipment does the buyer need to use your product?

3. What complementary goods does your product require?

If your product is an industrial good:

1. What firms are likely to use it?

2. What is the useful life of your product?

3. Is use or life affected by climate? If so, how?

4. Will geography affect product purchase, for example
transportation problems?

5. Will the product be restricted abroad, for example tariffs,
quotas or non-tariff barriers?

If the product is a consumer good:

1. Who will consume it? How frequently will the product be

2. Is consumption affected by climate?

3. Is consumption affected by geography, for example
transportation problems?

4. Will the product be restricted abroad for example tariffs,
quotas or non-tariff barriers?

5. Does your product conflict with traditions, habits or beliefs
of customers abroad?

Select the best countries to market your product.

The U.S. Small Business Administration and the United States
and Foreign Commercial Service may be of assistance in providing
product market analysis.
Since the number of world markets to be considered by a
company is very large, it is neither possible nor advisable to
research them all. Thus, your firm’s time and money are spent
most efficiently by using a sequential screening process.
The first step in this sequential screening process for the
company is to select the more attractive countries for your
product. Preliminary screening involves defining the physical,
political, economic and cultural environment. Rate the following
market factors in each category.

(1) Select 2 countries you think have the best
marketpotential for your product;
(2) Review the market factors for each country;
(3) Research data/information for each country;
(4) Rate each factor on a scale of 1-5 with 5 being thebest;
(5) Select a target market country based on your ratings


Demographic/Physical Environment:
. Population size, growth, density
. Urban and rural distribution
. Climate and weather variations
. Shipping distance
. Product-significant demographics
. Physical distribution and
communication network
. Natural resources

Political Environment:
. System of government
. Political stability and continuity
. Ideological orientation
. Government involvement in
. Attitudes toward foreign business
(trade restrictions, tariffs,
non-tariff barriers, bilateral
trade agreements)
. National economic and
developmental priorities


Economic Environment:
. Overall level of development
. Economic growth:
GNP, industrial sector
. Role of foreign trade in the
. Currency: inflation rate,
availability, controls, stability
of exchange rate
. Balance of payments
. Per capita income and distribution
. Disposable income and
expenditure patterns

Social/Cultural Environment:
. Literacy rate, educational level
. Existence of middle class
. Similarities and differences in
relation to home market
. Language and other cultural

Market Access:
. Limitations on trade:
high tariff levels, quotas
. Documentation and
import regulations
. Local standards, practices, and
other non-tariff barriers
. Patents and trademark protection
. Preferential treaties
. Legal considerations for
investment, taxation, repatriation,
employment, code of laws

Product Potential:
. Customer needs and desires
. Local production, imports,
. Exposure to and acceptance
of product
. Availability of linking products
. Industry-specific key indicators
of demand
. Attitudes toward products of
foreign origin
. Competitive offerings


Local Distribution and Production:
. Availability of intermediaries
. Regional and local transportation
. Availability of manpower
. Conditions for local manufacture

Indicators of population, income levels and consumption
patterns should be considered. In addition, statistics on local
production trends, along with imports and exports of the product
category, are helpful for assessing industry market potential.
Often, an industry will have a few key indicators or measures
that will help them determine the industry strength and demand
within an international market. A manufacturer of medical
equipment, for example, may use the number of hospital beds, the
number of surgeries and public expenditures for health care as
indicators to assess the potential for its products.

What are the projected growth rates for the two countries
selected over the next 3-5 years?

Determine Projected Sales Levels

What is your present U.S. market percentage?

What are the projected sales for similar products in your chosen
international markets for the coming year?

What sales volume will you project for your products in these
international markets for the coming year?

What is the projected growth in these international markets over
the next five years?

Identify Customers Within Your Chosen Markets

What companies, agents or distributors have purchased similar

What companies, agents or distributors have made recent requests
for information on similar products?

What companies, agents or distributors would most likely be
prospective customers for your export products?

Determine Method Of Exporting

How do other U.S. firms sell in the markets you have chosen?

Will you sell direct to the customer?

1. Who will represent your firm?

2. Who will service the customers needs?

STEP 5: Building A Distributor or Agent Relationship

Will you appoint an agent or distributor to handle your export

1. What facilities does the agent or distributor need to service
the market?

2. What type of client should your agent or distributor be
familiar with in order to sell your product?

3. What territory should the agent or distributor cover?

4. What financial strength should the agent or distributor have?

5. What other competitive or non-competitive lines are acceptable
or not acceptable for the agent or distributor to carry?

6. How many sales representatives does the agent or distributor
need and how often will they cover the territory?

Will you use an export management company to do your marketing
and distribution for you?


If yes, have you developed an acceptable sales and marketing plan
with realistic goals you can agree to?



To achieve efficient sales offerings to buyers in the
targeted markets, several concerns regarding products, literature
and customer relations should be addressed.

Identify product concerns.

Can the potential buyer see a functioning model or sample of your
product that is substantially the same as would be received from



What product labeling requirements must be met? (Metric
measurements, AC or DC electrical, voltage, etc.) Keep in mind
that the European Community now requires 3 languages on all new

When and how can product conversion requirements be obtained?

Can product be delivered on time as ordered?



Identify literature concerns.

If required, will you have literature in language other than


Do you need a product literature translator to handle the
technical language?


What special concerns should be addressed in sales literature to
ensure quality and informative representation of your product?

Identify customer relations concerns.

What is delivery time and method of shipment?

What are payment terms?

What are the warranty terms?

Who will service the product when needed?

How will you communicate with your customer? . . . through a
local agent, telex or fax?

Are you prepared to give the same order and delivery preference
to your international customers that you give to your domestic


In international sales, the chosen “terms of sale” are most
important. Where should you make the product available at your
plant: at the port of exit, landed at the port of importation or
delivered free and clear to the customer’s door? The answer to
this question involves determining what the market requires, and
how much risk you are willing to take.
Pricing strategy depends on “terms of sale” and also
considers value-added services of bringing the product to the
international market.

Define International Pricing Strategy.

How do you calculate the price for each product?

What factors have you considered in setting prices?

Which products’ sales are very sensitive to price changes?

How important is pricing in your overall marketing strategy?

What are your discount policies?

What terms of sales are best for your export product?

Define promotional strategy

What advertising materials will you use?

What trade shows or trade missions will you participate in, if

What time of year and how often will foreign travel be made to
customer markets?

Define customer services

What special customer services do you offer?

What types of payment options do you offer?

How do you handle merchandise that customers return?

Forecasting sales of your product is the starting point for
your financial projections. The sales forecast is extremely
important, so it is important you use realistic estimates.
Remember that sales forecasts show the expected time the sale is
made. Actual cash flow will be impacted by delivery date and
payment terms.

Step 1:
Fill in the units-sold line for markets 1, 2, and 3 for each year
on the following worksheet.

Step 2:
Fill in the sales price per unit for products sold in markets 1,
2 and 3.

Step 3:
Calculate the total sales for each of the different markets
(units sold x sales price per unit).

Step 4:
Calculate the sales (all markets) for each year – add down the

Step 5:
Calculate the five year total sales for each market – add across
the rows.

1 2 3 4 5
Market 1
Units Sold
Sale Price/Unit
Total Sales
Market 2
Units Sold
Sale Price/Unit
Total Sales
Market 3
Units Sold
Sale Price/Unit
Total Sales
Total Sales
All Markets

The cost of goods sold internationally is partially
determined by pricing strategies and terms of sale. To ascertain
the costs associated with the different terms of sale, it will be
necessary to consult an international freight forwarder. For
example, a typical term of sale offered by a U.S. exporter is
cost, insurance and freight (CIF) port of destination. Your
price includes all the costs to move product to the port of
destination. A typical cost work sheet will include some of the
following factors. These costs are in addition to the material
and labor used in the manufacture of your product.

export packing forwarding
container loading documentation
inland freight consular legalization
truck/rail unloading bank documentation
wharfage dispatch
handling bank collection fees
terminal charges cargo insurance
ocean freight other misc.
bunker surcharge telex
courier mail

To complete this worksheet, you will need to use data from
the sales forecast. Certain costs related to your terms of sale
may also have to be considered.

Step 1:
Fill in the units-sold line for market 1, 2, and 3 for each year.

Step 2:
Fill in the cost per unit for products sold in markets 1, 2, and

Step 3:
Calculate the total cost for each of the products – (units sold x
cost per unit).

Step 4:
Calculate the cost of goods sold – all products for each year –
add down the columns.

Step 5:
Calculate the five-year cost of goods for each market – add
across the rows.

1 2 3 4 5

Market 1
Units Sold
Sale Price/Unit
Total Cost
Market 2
Units Sold
Sale Price/Unit
Total Cost
Market 3
Units Sold
Sale Price/Unit
Total Cost
Cost of Goods Sold
All Markets

To determine overhead costs for your export products, you
should be certain to include costs that pertain only to
international marketing efforts. For example, costs for domestic
advertising of service that do not pertain to the international
market should not be included. Examples of most typical expense
categories for an export business are listed on the next page.
Some of these expenses will be first year start-up expenses, and
others will occur every year.

Step 1:
Review the expenses listed on the next page. These are expenses
that will be incurred because of your international business.
There may be other expense categories not listed — list them
under “other expenses.”

Step 2:
Estimate your cost for each expense category.

Step 3:
Estimate any domestic marketing expense included that is not
applicable to international sales.

Step 4:
Calculate the total for your international overhead expenses.

Market 1 Market 2 Market 3 Total Yr 1
Legal Fees
Accounting Fees
Promotional Material
Advertising Allowances
Promotional Expenses
(e.g., trade shows, etc.)
Other Expenses

Total Expenses
Less Domestic Expenses
Included Above, if any
Total International
Start-up Expenses

You are now ready to assemble the data for your projected
income statement. This statement will calculate your net profit
or net loss (before income taxes) for each year.

Step 1:
Fill in the sales for each year. You already estimated these
figures; just recopy them on the work sheet.

Step 2:
Fill in the cost of goods sold for each year. You already
estimated these figures, just recopy on the work sheet.

Step 3:
Calculate the Gross Margin for each year (Sales minus Cost of
Goods Sold).

Step 4:
Calculate the Total Operating Expenses for each year.

Step 5:
Calculate the Net Profit or Net Loss (Before Income Taxes) for
each year (Gross Margin minus Total Operating Expenses).


1 2 3 4 5
International Sales
Cost of Goods Sold
Gross Margin

International Operating Expenses:
Trade shows
Promotional Material
Communication Equipment

Total International Operating Expenses

The break-even is the level of sales at which your total
sales exactly covers your total costs and operating expenses.
This level of sales is called the Break-Even Point Sales Level
(BEP sales).
In other words, at the BEP sales level, you will make a zero
profit. If you sell more than the BEP sales level, you will make
a net profit. If you sell less than the BEP sales level, you
will have a net loss.
The worksheet will calculate your BEP sales level for any
year of operations. The steps listed below will assume that you
are calculating the BEP sales level for Year 1.

Step 1:
Fill in your Total Sales, Total Cost of Goods Sold, and Total
Gross Margin for Year 1 on the following page.

Step 2:
Calculate the Gross Margin percent using the formula which is
given on the work sheet. The Gross Margin percent tells you what
percentage of each dollar of sales results in Gross Margin.

Step 3:
Fill in the Total Operating Expenses for Year 1.

Step 4:
Calculate the BEP sales level using the formula which is given.
Your need to reach this level of sales just to break even.

Note: In addition to a break-even analysis, it is highly
recommended that a profit and loss statement be generated for the
first few actual international transactions. Since there are a
great number of variables relating to costs of goods, real
transactions are required to establish actual profitability and
minimize the risk of losses.

Total Sales $
Total Cost of Goods Sold $
Total Gross Margin $

Total Gross Margin $
Gross Margin % $
Total Sales $

Gross Margin % = 0.
(Leave the Gross Margin $ in a decimal format. The format
is 0.347 – not 34.7%).

Total Operating Expenses $

Total Operating Expenses $
BEP Sales Level $
Gross Margin % $
BEP Sales Level $

This is a worksheet that you will need to work on
periodically as you progress in the workbook. The purpose is to
ensure that key tasks are identified and completed to increase
the success of your international business.

Identify key activities
By reviewing other portions of your business plan, compile a
list of tasks that are vital to the successful operation of your
business. Be sure to include travel to your chosen market as

Assign responsibility for each activity
For each identified activity, assign one person primary
responsibility for the completion of that activity.

Determine scheduled start date
For each activity determine the date when work will begin.
You should consider how the activity fits into your overall plan
as well as the availability of the person responsible.

Determine scheduled finish date
For each activity determine when the activity must be



Verify completion of previous pages.
You should have finished all the other sections in the
workbook before continuing any further.

Identify your business plan audience.
What type of person are you intending to satisfy with this
business plan? The summary should briefly address all the major
issues that are important to this person. Keep in mind that this
page will probably be the first read by this person. It is
extremely important the summary be brief yet contain the
information most important to the reader. This section should
make the reader want to read the rest of your plan.

Write a one-page summary.
You will now need to write no more than a page summarizing
all the previous work sheets you have completed.
Determine which sections are going to be most interesting to
your reader. Write one to three sentences that summarize each of
the important sections.
These sentences should appear in the order of the sections
of your business plan. The sentences must fit together to form a
summary and not appear to be a group of loosely related thoughts.
You may want to have several different summaries, depending
on who will read the business plan.


Setting proper export prices is crucial to a successful
international sales program; prices must be high enough to
generate a reasonable profit, yet low enough to be competitive in
overseas markets. Basic pricing criteria – costs, market demand,
and competition – are the same for domestic and foreign sales.
However, a thorough analysis of all cost factors going into a
cost, insurance and freight (CIF) quotation may result in prices
that are different from domestic ones.
“Marginal cost” pricing is the most realistic and frequently
used pricing method. Based on a calculation of incremental
costs, this method considers the direct out-of-pocket expenses of
producing and selling products for export as a floor beneath
which prices cannot be set without incurring a loss. There are
important principles that should be followed when pricing a
product for export, summarized below.

In calculating an export price, be sure to take into account
all the cost factors for which you, the exporter, are liable.
1. Calculate direct materials and labor costs involved in
producing the goods for export.
2. Calculate your factory overhead costs, prorating the
amount of overhead chargeable to your proposed export order.
3. Deduct any charges not attributable to the export
operation (i.e., domestic marketing costs, domestic legal
expenses), especially if export sales represent only a small part
of total sales.
4. Add in the other out-of-pocket expenses directly tied to
the export sales, such as:
travel expenses
catalogs, slide shows, video presentations
promotional material
export advertising
transportation expenses
packing materials
legal expenses*
office supplies*
patent and trademark fees*
provision for bad debts
market research
credit checks
translation costs
product modification
consultant fees
freight forwarder fees

*These items will typically represent the cost of the total
operation, so be sure to prorate these to reflect only the cost
of producing the goods for export.
5. Allow yourself a realistic price margin for unforeseen
costs, unavoidable risks, and simple mistakes that are common in
any new undertaking.
6. Also allow yourself a realistic profit or mark-up.

Market Demand – As in the domestic market, product demand is
the key to setting prices in a foreign market. What will the
market bear for a specific product or service? What will the
estimated consumer price for your product be in each foreign
market? If your prices seem out of line, try some simple product
modifications to reduce the selling price, such as simplification
of technology or alteration of product size to conform to local
market norms. Also keep in mind that currency valuations alter
the affordability of goods. A good pricing strategy should
accommodate fluctuations in currency.

Competition – As in the domestic market, few exporters are
free to set prices without carefully evaluating their
competitor’s pricing policies. The situation is further
complicated by the need to evaluate the competition’s prices in
each foreign market an exporter intends to enter. In a foreign
market that is serviced by many competitors, an exporter may have
little choice but to match the going price or even go below it to
establish a market share. If, however, the exporter’s product or
service is new to a particular foreign market, it may be possible
to set a higher price than normally charged domestically.

An Export Costing Worksheet that may guide you in preparing
export price quotations follows.

Reference Information

1. Our Reference 2. Customer Reference

Customer Information:

3. Name 5. Cable Address
4. Address 6. Telex No.
7. Fax No.

Product Information: SIC Code:

8. Product 9. No. of Units
10. Net Weight (unit) 11. Gross Weight
12. Dimensions ___ x___ x___ 13. Cubic Measure ____(
14. Total Measure 15. H.S. No.

Product Charges:

16. Price (or cost) per unit ______ x units _____Total__________
17. Profit (or markup)
18. Sales Commissions

Fees-Packing, Marking, Inland Freight:

20. Freight Forwarder
21. Financing Costs
22. Other charges
23. Export Packing
24. Labeling/Marking
25. Inland Freight to
26. Other charges (identify)

Port Charges/Document

28. Unloading (heavy lift)
29. Terminal
30. Other (identify)
31. Consular Document (if required)
32. Certificate of Origin (if required)
33. Export License (if required)


35. Based on ________ weight _________ measure
36. Ocean ___________ Air ____________
37. On Deck _________ Under Deck _____
38. Rate ____________ Minimum ________ Amount _________


39. Coverage required _________________
40. Basis ___________ Rate____________ Amount _________


This worksheet helps you identify organizational resources
that can provide programs and services to assist you in
developing your international business plan and increase your
export sales.

SERVICES SBA USDOC SBDC Trade University World
Office Office Assoc CommCollege Trade
Readiness to
Market Research
Training Seminars
Education Programs
Export Guides
Trade Shows

Chapter 2

Identifying International Markets
To succeed in exporting, you must first identify the most
profitable international markets for your products or services.
Without proper guidance and assistance, however, this process can
be time consuming and costly — particularly for a small
The U.S. federal government, state governments, trade
associations, exporters’ associations and foreign governments
offer low-cost and easily accessible resources to simplify and
speed your foreign market research. This chapter describes those
resources and how to use them.

Many government programs and staff are dedicated to helping
you, the small business owner, assess whether your product or
service is ready to compete in a foreign market.

The U.S. Small Business Administration
Many new-to-export small firms have found the counseling
services provided by the SBA’s Service Corps of Retired
Executives (SCORE) particularly helpful. Through your local SBA
District office, you can gain access to more than 850 SCORE
volunteers with experience in international trade.

“Our SCORE counselor is really like a big brother to us and
our company,” says Jim Hadzicki, Vice-President of San
Diego-based Revolution Kites, a recreational kite manufacturer.
Exports now account for 24 percent of their sales in just three
years. “I recently went on a trip to Tokyo to line up a
distributorship. Our SCORE counselor helped me list our
objectives, what I was to do and ask about and even told me what
gift I should take to the Japanese representative,” says

Two other SBA-sponsored programs are available to small
businesses needing management and export advice: Small Business
Development Centers and Small Business Institutes affiliated with
colleges and universities throughout the United States:

Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) offer counseling,
training and research assistance on all aspects of small business
The Small Business Institute (SBI) program provides small
business owners with intensive management counselling from
qualified business students who are supervised by faculty. SBIs
provide advice on a wide range of management challenges facing
small businesses — including finding the best foreign markets
for particular products or services.

The U.S. Department of Commerce
The U.S. Department of Commerce’s (DOC) International Trade
Administration (ITA) is a valuable source of advice and
information. In ITA offices throughout the country international
trade specialists can help you locate the best foreign markets
for your products. Oklahoma exporter OK-1 Manufacturing Co. has
found the foreign market research available through the ITA
extremely useful:

“The Oklahoma District ITA office prepared a market research
study to determine whether we should export our fitness accessory
items to Japan,” says Sherry Teigen, OK-1 Manufacturing Co.
export manager. Today, the company exports to Japan in addition
to 20 other countries. Since it began exporting, the company
staff has grown by 75 and Sherry’s husband, OK-1’s President,
Roger Teigen, won the 1991 SBA Exporter of the Year award.

District Export Councils (DECs) are another useful
ITA-sponsored resource. The 51 District Export Councils located
around the United States are comprised of 1,800 executives with
experience in international trade who volunteer to help small
businesses export. Council members come from banks,
manufacturing companies, law offices, trade associations, state
and local agencies and educational institutions. They draw upon
their experience to encourage, educate, counsel and guide
potential, new and seasoned exporters in their individual
marketing needs.

The United States and Foreign Commercial Service (US&FCS)
helps U.S. firms compete more effectively in the global
marketplace with trade specialists in 69 United States cities and
70 countries worldwide. US&FCS offices provide information on
foreign markets, agent/distributor location services, trade leads
and counseling on business opportunities, trade barriers and
prospects abroad.

The United States Department of Agriculture
If you have an agricultural product, you should investigate
the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Foreign Agricultural
Service (FAS). With posts in 80 embassies and consulates
worldwide, the FAS can obtain specific overseas market
information for your product. The FAS also maintains sector
specialists in the United States to monitor foreign markets for
specific U.S. agricultural products.
Most state commerce and economic development offices have
international trade specialists to assist you. Many states have
trade offices in overseas markets. Dial Tool and Manufacturing
of Franklin Park, Illinois, found the Illinois State office in
Hong Kong very helpful:

After visiting the Illinois State office in Hong Kong, Dial
Tool and Manufacturing President Steve Pagliuzza reports that he
was able to sign on sales reps for his company’s metal stamping
equipment: “My state office in Hong Kong gave me several names of
potential reps. We eventually signed them on and are now
successfully exporting to Asia, in addition to Europe, Canada and
Mexico. In four years, 15-20 percent of our sales now come from

Port Authorities are a wealth of export information.
Although traditionally associated with transportation services,
many port authorities around the country have expanded their
services to provide export training programs and
foreign-marketing research assistance. For example, the New
York-New Jersey Port Authority provides extensive services to
exporters including XPORT, a full-service export trading company.


In addition to government-supported resources, private
sector organizations can also provide invaluable assistance.

Exporters’ Associations
World Trade Centers, import-export clubs and organizations
such as the American Association of Exporters and Importers and
the Small Business Exporter’s Association can aid in your foreign
market research.

Trade Associations
The National Federation of International Trade Associations
lists over 150 organizations in the U.S. to help new-to-export
small businesses enter international markets. Many of these
associations maintain libraries, databanks and established
relationships with foreign governments to assist in your
exporting efforts.
More than 5,000 trade and professional associations
currently operate in the United States; many actively promote
international trade activities for their members.
The Telecommunications Industry Association is just one
association which leads frequent overseas trade missions and
monitors the pulse of foreign market conditions around the globe.
Whatever your product or service, a trade association probably
exists that can help you obtain information on domestic and
foreign markets.
Chambers of Commerce, particularly state chambers, or
chambers located in major industrial areas, often employ
international trade specialists who gather information on markets


Now that you know where to begin your research, you should
next identify the most profitable foreign markets for your
products or services. You will need to:

. classify your product;
. find countries with the largest and fastest growing
markets for your product;
. determine which foreign markets will be the most
. define and narrow those export markets you intend to
. talk to U.S. customers doing business internationally;
. research export efforts of U.S. competitors.

Classifying your product
The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code is the
system by which the United States government classifies its goods
and services. Knowing the proper code for your product or
service can be useful in collecting and analyzing data available
in the United States.
Data originating from outside the United States — or
information available from international organizations — are
organized under the Standard International Trade Classification
(SITC) system, which may assign a different code to your product
or service.
Another method of classifying products for export is the
Harmonized System (HS). Knowing the HS classification number,
the SIC and the SITC codes for your product is essential to
obtaining domestic and international trade and tariff
information. DOC and USDA trade specialists can assist in
identifying the codes for your products. The United States
Bureau of the Census (USBC) can help identify the HS number for
your product.

Finding countries with the largest and fastest growing markets
for your product
At this stage of your research, you should consider where
your domestic competitors are exporting. Trade associations can
often provide data on where companies in a particular industry
sector are exporting their products. The three largest markets
for U.S. products are Canada, Japan and Mexico. Yet these
countries may not be the largest markets for your product.
Three key United States government databases can identify
those countries which represent significant export potential for
your product: SBA’s Automated Trade Locator Assistance System
(SBAtlas), Foreign Trade Report FT925 and the U.S. Department of
Commerce’s National Trade Data Bank (NTDB).
SBA’s Automated Trade Locator Assistance System (SBAtlas) is
offered only by the U.S. Small Business Administration and
provides current market information to SBA clients on world
markets suitable for their products and services. This valuable
research tool supplies small business exporters with information
about where their products are being bought and sold and which
countries offer the largest markets. The Country Reports detail
products imported and exported by various foreign nations. Data
are supplied by the DOC’s USBC and member nations of the United
Nations. This information can be obtained through a SCORE
counselor at the SBA District and Regional Offices and at SBDCs
and SBIs. This service is free to requesting small businesses.
Foreign Trade Report FT925 gives a monthly country-specific
breakdown of imports and exports by SITC number. Available by
subscription from the Government Printing Office, the FT925 can
also be obtained through DOC ITA offices.
The National Trade Data Bank (NTDB) contains more than
100,000 U.S. government documents on export promotion and
international economic information. With the NTDB, you can
conduct databank searches on country and product information.
NTDB can be purchased by subscription and used with a CD-ROM
reader, or can be used at Federal libraries throughout the United
States. DOC ITA offices will also conduct specific NTDB searches
to meet your foreign market research needs.
Once you learn which are the largest markets for your
products, determine which are the fastest growing markets. Find
out what demographic patterns and cultural considerations will
affect your market penetration.
Several publications provide geographic and demographic
statistical information pertinent to your product: The World
Factbook, produced by the Central Intelligence Agency; World
Population, published by DOC’s USBC; The World Bank Atlas,
available from the World Bank; and the International Trade
Statistics Yearbook of the United Nations. Volume Two of this
U.N. publication (available at many libraries) lists
international demand for commodities over a five-year period.


Once you have defined and narrowed a few prospective foreign
markets for your product, you will need to examine them in
detail. At this stage you should ask the following questions:

. how does the quality of your product or service compare
with that of goods already available in your target foreign
. is your price competitive in the markets you are
. who are your major customers?

Answering these questions may seem overwhelming at first,
but many resources are available to help you select which foreign
markets are most conducive to selling your product.
The DOC’s ITA can link you with specific foreign markets.
ITA offices are part of the US&FCS and communicate directly with
FCS officers working in United States Embassies worldwide.
FCS staff and in-country market research firms produce
in-depth reports on selected products and industries that can
answer many of your questions regarding foreign market
One small business exporter who regularly uses foreign
market information obtained through the DOC’s US&FCS is
Fabri-Quilt Inc. of North Kansas City, Missouri.

According to Fabri-Quilt President Lionel Kunst, “When I
decide to enter a foreign market, the Commerce Department ITA
office in Missouri sends information on my company to the Foreign
Commercial Service Officer in the country where I want to export.
They send me back information on that particular country and even
make appointments for me when I decide to visit the market
myself.” Of the product line Fabri-Quilt exports, 25 percent of
their sales can be attributed to exporting.

You can also order a comparison shopping service report
through ITA district offices. The report is a low-cost way to
conduct research without having to leave the United States.
SBA’s and DOC’s Export Legal Assistance Network (ELAN)
provides new exporters with answers to their initial legal
questions. Local attorneys volunteer, on a one-time basis, to
counsel small businesses to address their export-related legal
questions. These attorneys can address questions pertaining to
contract negotiations, licensing, credit collections procedures
and documentation. There is no charge for this one-time service,
available through SBA or DOC district offices.
Trade Opportunities Program (TOPs) of the DOC can furnish
U.S. small businesses with trade leads from foreign companies
that want to buy or represent their products or services. These
trade leads are available in both electronic or printed form from
the DOC. Participating companies must pay a modest fee to gain
access to this service.
Other important issues about the target foreign markets you
should explore are:
. political risk considerations,
. the cultural environment, and
. whether any product modifications, such as packaging or
labelling, will make the product more “exportable.”

One U.S. poultry producer discovered it had to modify its
product to make it more palatable to Japanese consumers:

Atlanta-based Gold Kist Inc. found that, to be successful in
Japan, they needed to cut and package their chicken parts to meet
Japanese consumer preferences. That change required substantial
modification in Gold Kist’s operations. The alteration paid off:
Gold Kist’s Don Sands reports, “In 1988, we shipped 5.3 million
pounds of poultry to Japan, 9 million in 1989 and 12 million in

Identifying market-specific issues is easily accomplished by
contacting foreign government representatives in the United
States. Commercial posts of foreign governments located within
embassies and consulates can assist you in obtaining specific
market and product information.
American Chambers of Commerce (AmChams) abroad can also be
an invaluable resource. As affiliates of the United States
Chamber of Commerce, 61 AmChams, located in 55 countries, collect
and disseminate extensive information on foreign markets. While
membership fees are usually required, the small investment can be
worth it for the information received.
Another fundamental question to ask country-specific experts
is what market barriers, such as tariffs or import restrictions
(sometimes referred to as non-tariff barriers), exist for your
product? Specialists at U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) should
be consulted on trade barriers.
Tariffs are taxes imposed on imported goods. In many cases,
tariffs raise the price of imported goods to the level of
domestic goods. Often tariffs become barriers to imported
products because the amount of tax imposed makes it impossible
for exporters to profitably sell their products in foreign
Non-tariff barriers are laws or regulations that a country
enacts to protect domestic industries against foreign
competition. Such non-tariff barriers may include subsidies for
domestic goods, import quotas or regulations on import quality.
To determine the rate of duty, you will need to identify the
Harmonized Tariff section which corresponds to the product you
wish to export. Each country has its own schedule of duty rates
corresponding to the section of the Harmonized System of Tariff
Nomenclature, I-XXII.


Once you know the largest, fastest growing and most
penetrable markets for your product or service, you must then
define your export strategy.
Do not choose too many markets. For most small businesses,
three foreign markets will be more than enough, initially. You
may want to test one market and then move on to secondary markets
as your “exportise” develops. Focusing on regional, geographic
clusters of countries can also be more cost effective than
choosing markets scattered around the globe.
After you have identified the best export markets, your next
step will be to determine the best way to distribute your product
abroad. Chapter 3, “Market Entry,” discusses distribution

Chapter 3

Foreign Market Entry Having determined the best international
markets for your products, you now need to evaluate the most
profitable way to get your products to potential customers in
these markets.
There are several methods of foreign market entry including
exporting, licensing, joint venture and off-shore production.
The method you choose will depend on a variety of factors
including the nature of your particular product or service and
the conditions for market penetration which exist in the foreign
target market.
Exporting can be accomplished by selling your product or
service directly to a foreign firm, or indirectly, through the
use of an export intermediary, such as a commissioned agent, an
export management or trading company.
International joint ventures can be a very effective means
of market entry. Joint ventures overseas are often accomplished
by licensing or off-shore production. Licensing involves a
contractual agreement whereby you assign the rights to distribute
or manufacture your product or service to a foreign company.
Off-shore production requires either setting up your own facility
or sub-contracting the manufacturing of your product to an
assembly operator.
Licensing and off-shore production are discussed in Chapter
7, “Strategic Alliances and Foreign Investment Opportunities.”


Of the various methods of foreign market entry, exporting is
most commonly used by small businesses. Start-up costs and risks
are limited, and profits can be realized early on.
There are two basic ways to export: direct or indirect. The
direct method requires your company to find a foreign buyer and
then make all arrangements for shipping your products overseas.
If this method seems beyond the scope of your business’ in-house
capabilities at this time, do not abandon the idea of exporting.
Consider using an export intermediary:

American Cedar, Inc., a Hot Springs, Arkansas, producer of
cedar products reports that 30 percent of its product sales now
comes from exporting: “We displayed our products at a trade show,
and an export management company found us. They helped alleviate
the hassles of exporting directly. Our products are now being
distributed throughout the European Community from a distribution
point in France,” says American Cedar President Julian McKinney.


Many small businesses like American Cedar have been
exporting indirectly by using an export intermediary. There are
several kinds of export intermediaries you should consider.

Commissioned agents
Commissioned agents act as “brokers,” linking your product
or service with a specific foreign buyer. Generally, the agent
or broker will not fulfill the orders, but rather will pass them
to you for your acceptance. However, they may assist, in some
cases, with export logistics such as packing, shipping and export

Export Management Companies (EMCs)
EMCs act as your “off-site” export department, representing
your product — along with the products of other companies — to
prospective overseas purchasers. The management company looks
for business on behalf of your company and takes care of all
aspects of the export transaction. Hiring an EMC is often a
viable option for smaller companies that lack the time and
expertise to break into international markets on their own.
EMCs will often use the letterhead of your company,
negotiate export contracts and then provide after-sales support.
EMCs may assist in arranging export financing for the exporters
but they do not generally assure payment to the manufacturers.
Some of the specific functions an EMC will perform include:

. conducting market research to determine the best
foreign markets for your products;
. attending trade shows and promoting your
. assessing proper distribution channels;
. locating foreign representatives and/or distributors;
. arranging export financing;
. handling export logistics, such as preparing
invoices,arranging insurance, customs documentation, etc.; and
. advising on the legal aspects of exporting and
othercompliance matters dealing with domestic and foreign trade

EMCs usually operate on a commission basis, although some
work on a retainer basis and some take title to the goods they
sell, making a profit on the markup. It is becoming increasingly
common for EMCs to take title to goods.

Export Trading Companies (ETCs)
ETCs perform many of the functions of EMCs. However, they
tend to be demand-driven and transaction-oriented, acting as an
agent between the buyer and seller. Most trading companies
source U.S. products for their overseas buyers. If you offer a
product that is competitive and popular with the ETC buyers, you
are likely to get repeat business. Most ETCs will take title to
your goods for export and will pay your company directly. This
arrangement practically eliminates the risks associated with
exporting for the manufacturer.

ETC Cooperatives
ETC cooperatives are United States government-sanctioned
co-ops of companies with similar products who seek to export and
gain greater foreign market share. Many agricultural concerns
have benefited from ETC cooperative exporting, and many
associations have sponsored ETC cooperatives for their member
companies. The National Machine Tool Builders’ Association, the
Outdoor Power Equipment Institute and the National Association of
Energy Service Companies are a few examples of associations with
ETC co-ops. Check with your particular trade association for
further information.

The Export Trading Company Act of 1982
This legislation encourages the use and formation of
EMCs/ETCs by changing the antitrust and banking environments
under which these companies operate. The Act increases access to
export financing by permitting bank holding companies to invest
in ETCs and reduces restrictions on trade finance provided by
financial institutions. Under the Act, banks are allowed to make
equity investments in qualified ETCs.

Foreign Trading Companies
Some of the world’s largest trading companies are located
outside the United States. They can often be a source of export
opportunity. U.S. & Foreign Commercial Service (US&FCS)
representatives in embassies around the world can tell you more
about trading companies located in a given foreign market.

Exporting through an Intermediary — Factors to Consider
Working with an EMC/ETC makes sense for many small
businesses. The right relationship, if structured properly, can
bring enormous benefits to the manufacturer, but no business
relationship is without its potential drawbacks. The
manufacturer should carefully weigh the pros and cons before
entering into a contract with an EMC/ETC. Some advantages

. Your product gains exposure in international markets
–with little or no commitment of staff and resources from your
. The EMC/ETC’s years of experience and
well-establishednetwork of contacts may help you to gain faster
access to international markets than you could through
establishing a relationship with a foreign-based partner.
. Using an intermediary lowers or eliminates your
exportstart-up costs, and, therefore, the risks associated with
exporting. You can negotiate your contract with an EMC so that
you pay nothing until the first order is received.
. Your intermediary will guide you through the
exportprocess step-by-step. Over time, you will develop your own
export skills.

Some disadvantages of exporting through an intermediary include:

. You lose some control over the way in which yourproduct
is marketed and serviced. Your company’s image and name are at
stake. You will want to incorporate any concerns you may have
into your contract, and you will want to monitor closely the
activities and progress of your intermediary.
. You may lose part of your export-sales profit margin
bydiscounting your price to an intermediary. However, you may
find that the economies of scale realized through increased
production offset this loss.
. Using an intermediary can result in a higher pricebeing
passed on to the overseas buyer or end-user. This may or may not
affect your competitive position in the market. The issue of
pricing should be addressed at the outset.

Export Merchants/Export Agents
Export merchants and agents will purchase and then
re-package products for export, assuming all risks and selling to
their own customers. This export intermediary option should be
considered carefully, as your company could run the risk of
losing control over your product’s pricing and marketing in
overseas markets.

Piggyback Exporting
Allowing another company, which already has an export
distribution system in place, to sell your company’s product in
addition to its own is called “piggyback” exporting.
Piggyback exporting has several advantages. This
arrangement can help you gain immediate foreign market access.
Also, all the requisite logistics associated with selling abroad
are borne by the exporting company. Oklahoma-based DP
Manufacturing’s winches were attached to another product and sold
abroad by another company. DP Manufacturing now handles its own
exports and reports that 15 percent of its sales comes from
international markets.

How to Find Export Intermediaries
Small businesses often report that intermediaries find them
— at trade fairs and through trade journals where their products
have been advertised — so it can often pay to get the word out
that you are interested in exporting.
One way to begin your search for a U.S.-based export
intermediary is in the Yellow Pages of your local phone
directory. In just a few initial phone calls, you should be able
to determine whether indirect exporting is an option you want to
pursue further.
The National Association of Export Companies (NEXCO) and the
National Federation of Export Associations (NFEA) are two
associations that can assist in your efforts to find export
intermediaries. The Directory of Leading Export Management
Companies is another useful source (see Part II, The Exporter’s
DOC’s Office of Export Trading Company Affairs (OETCA) can
also assist in providing information on how to locate ETCs and
EMCs, as well as ETC cooperatives in the U.S. The office, under
a joint public/private partnership, compiles the Export Yellow
Pages, which provides the names and addresses of EMCs/ETCs, as
well as other export service companies, such as banks and freight
forwarders. Manufacturers, or producers, can also be listed in
the guide free of charge; 50,000 copies are distributed worldwide
annually. Contact your local U.S. Department of Commerce
district office for information on being listed or for a free
copy of the directory.
Locating the best export intermediary to represent you
overseas is important. Do your homework before signing an


While indirect exporting offers many advantages, direct
exporting also has its rewards: although initial outlays and the
associated risks are greater, so too can be the profits.

California exporter Bayley Suit, Inc. reports that 80
percent of its sales come from exporting. The company president
says that “40 percent of sales come from the Pacific Rim and 40
percent from the UK and Europe. In just a few years, exports
have pushed our gross sales from $1 million to $4 million.”

Direct exporting signals a commitment on the part of company
management to fully engage in international trade. It may
require that you dedicate a staff person or even several
personnel to support your export efforts, and company management
may have to travel abroad frequently.
Selling directly to an international buyer means that you
will have to handle the logistics of moving the goods overseas.
But, as the case of Ekegard, Inc. reveals, the extra efforts can
pay off:

Using agents based in Pakistan and Thailand, Iowa-based
Ekegard, Inc. states that 80 percent of its sales now come from
exporting — quite an achievement in just three years. According
to Ekegard President Janne Ekstam, “Exporting helps to offset
fluctuations in the United States economy.”

Different Approaches to Direct Exporting

Sales Representatives/Agents
Like manufacturers’ representatives in the United States,
foreign-based representatives or “agents” work on a commission
basis to locate buyers for your product. Your representative
most likely will handle several complementary, but non-competing
product lines. An agent is, generally, a representative with
authority to make commitments on behalf of your firm. Be
careful, therefore, about using the terms interchangeably. Your
agreement should specify whether the agent/rep. has legal
authority to obligate the firm.

Foreign distributors, in comparison, purchase merchandise
from the U.S. company and re-sell it at a profit. They maintain
an inventory of your product, which allows the buyer to receive
the goods quickly. Distributors often provide after-sales
service to the buyer.
Your agreement with any overseas business partner — whether
a representative, agent or distributor — should address whether
the arrangement is exclusive or non-exclusive, the territory to
be covered, the length of the association, and other issues.
(See Chapter Four, The Export Transaction, for additional
information on negotiating agent/distributor agreements.)
Kansas-based Airparts Companies has been extremely
successful using overseas distributors:

“We employ 1,200 distributors worldwide,” says Marta E.
Maxwell, president of Airparts Companies, Inc. of Wichita,
Kansas. With over $13 million in sales and 38 employees, Maxwell
attributes 70 percent of her sales to exporting.

Finding overseas buyers for your products need not be more
difficult than locating a representative here in the United
States. It may require, however, an investment of time and
resources to travel to your target market to meet face-to-face
with prospective partners. One way to identify those interested
in your product is to tap the DOC’s Agent/Distributor Service.
This program provides a customized search to identify agents,
distributors and representatives for United States products based
on the foreign companies’ examination of the United States
product literature.

“The Commerce Department Agent/Distributor Search located a
distributor for us in India, and we’ve had a good working
relationship for three years,” says Shirley Wright, a
representative of the Wisconsin biotechnology firm Promega.
Promega derives more than 30 percent of its sales from

Other sources of leads to find foreign agents and
distributors are trade associations, foreign chambers of commerce
in the United States and American chambers of commerce located in
foreign countries.
Many publications can be useful. The Standard Handbook of
Industrial Distributors lists agents and distributors in more
than 90 countries. The Manufacturers’ Agents National
Association also has a roster of agents in Europe (see Part II,
The Exporter’s Directory).

Foreign government buying agents
Foreign government agencies or quasi-governmental agencies
are often responsible for procurement. In some instances,
countries require an in-country agent to access these procurement
opportunities. This can often represent significant export
potential for U.S. companies, particularly in markets where U.S.
technology and know-how are valued. Foreign country commercial
attaches in the United States can provide you with the
appropriate in-country procurement office.
Retail Sales
If you produce consumer goods, you may be able to sell
directly to a foreign retailer. You can either hire a sales
representative to travel to your target market with your product
literature and samples and call on retailers, or you can
introduce your products to retailers through direct-mail
campaigns. The direct-marketing approach will save commission
fees and travel expenses. You may want to combine trips to your
target markets with exploratory visits to retailers. Such
face-to-face meetings will reinforce your direct marketing.

Direct Sales to End-User
Your product line will determine whether direct sales to the
end-user are a viable option for your company. A manufacturer of
medical equipment, for example, may be able to sell directly to
hospitals. Other major end-users include foreign governments,
schools, businesses and individual consumers.


Advertise in Trade Journals
Many small businesses report that foreign buyers often find
them. An ad placed in a trade journal or a listing in the DOC’s
Commercial News USA can often yield innumerable inquiries from
abroad. Commercial News USA is a catalog-magazine featuring U.S.
products and distributed to 125,000 business readers in over 140
countries around the world and to over 650,000 Economic Bulletin
Board users in 18 countries. Fees vary with the size of the
listing. Many U.S. companies have had enormous success in
locating buyers through this vehicle:

“When overseas buyers contacted us we were thrilled,” says
Maryland’s Marine Enterprises Vice President Brenda Dandy,
discussing the results of a listing her company bought in
Commercial News USA. Exports now represent 20 percent of Marine
Enterprises’ sales.

Participate in Catalog and Video/Catalog Exhibitions
Catalog and Video/Catalog exhibitions are another low-cost
means of advertising your product abroad. Your products are
introduced to potential partners at major international trade
shows — and you never have to leave the United States. For a
small fee, the US&FCS officers in embassies show your catalogs or
videos to interested agents, distributors and other potential
A number of private sector publications also offer U.S.
companies the opportunity to display their products in catalogs
sent abroad. A few include Johnston International’s Export
Magazine, The Journal of Commerce and the Thomas Publishing
Company’s American Literature Review.

Pursue Trade Leads
Rather than wait for potential foreign customers to contact
you, another option is to search out foreign companies looking
for the particular product you produce. Trade leads from
international companies seeking to buy or represent U.S. products
are gathered by US&FCS officers worldwide and are distributed
through the DOC’s Economic Bulletin Board. There is a nominal
annual fee and a connect-time charge. The leads also are
published daily in The Journal of Commerce under the heading,
“Trade Opportunities Program” and in other commercial news
Another source of trade leads is the World Trade Centers
(WTC) Network, where you can advertise your product or service on
an electronic bulletin board transmitted globally.
If your product is agricultural, the U.S. Department of
Agriculture (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS)
disseminates trade leads collected by their 80 overseas offices.
These leads may be accessed through the AgExport FAX polling
system, the AgExport Trade Leads Bulletin, The Journal of
Commerce or on several electronic bulletin boards.

Exhibit at Trade Shows
Trade shows also are another means of locating foreign
buyers. DOC’s Foreign Buyer Program certifies a certain number
of U.S. trade shows each year. Foreign buyers are actively
recruited by DOC commercial officers, and special services —
such as meeting areas and translators — are provided to
encourage and facilitate private business discussions.
International trade shows are another excellent way to
market your product abroad. Many U.S. small businesses find that
going to a foreign trade show once just is not enough:

“You have to hang in there,” said Allen-Edmonds Shoe
Corporation President John Stollenwerk. “In the beginning, in
many countries where we displayed our products at foreign trade
shows, we saw no results. But gradually people began to take our
product, American made shoes, seriously. We market our shoes as
`the world’s finest.’ That’s one way American companies can
compete.” Twelve percent of Wisconsin-based Allen-Edmonds sales
are derived from exporting.

Through a certification program DOC also supports about 80
international fairs and exhibitions held in markets worldwide.
U.S. exhibitors receive pre- and post-event assistance. The USDA
FAS sponsors about 15 major shows overseas each year.

Participate in Trade Missions
Participating in overseas trade missions is yet another way
to meet foreign buyers. Public/private trade missions are often
organized cooperatively by federal and state international trade
agencies and trade associations. Arrangements are handled for
you so that the process of meeting prospective partners or buyers
is simplified.
Matchmaker Trade Delegations are DOC-sponsored trade
missions to select foreign markets. Your company is matched
carefully with potential agents and distributors interested in
your product. Tennessee-based Shaffield Industries, a futon
manufacturer, reaped excellent returns as a result of a 1991
Matchmaker trade mission to Asia:

“I was especially surprised at the high-level of
appointments scheduled for us during the Matchmaker trade
mission. Each was a true prospect,” stated David Goff,
comptroller for Shaffield Industries. As a result of the
mission, his company negotiated the sale of three containers of
his product to South Korea and two containers to Taipei.

Being properly prepared for the kinds of inquiries you might
encounter on overseas trade missions is important. The SBA
offers pre-mission training sessions through its district offices
and the SCORE program. Contact your local SBA office for a
schedule of upcoming “How to Participate Profitably in Trade
Missions” seminars.

Contact Multilateral Development Banks
In developing countries, large infrastructure projects are
often funded by multilateral development banks such as the World
Bank, the African, Asian, Inter-American Development Banks and
the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.Multilateral
development bank (MDB) projects often represent extensive
opportunities for U.S. small businesses to compete for project
work. DOC estimates that MDB projects could amount to at least
$15 billion dollars in export contracts for United States
One U.S. small business that successfully entered the
international marketplace by bidding on a World Bank project is
DSI of Poestenkill, New York:

“As a result of World Bank loans to the People’s Republic of
China, DSI received over $1 million dollars in contracts for
laboratory equipment,” reports DSI President Dave Ferguson.
Exports now account for 60-70 percent of DSI’s business.

Development bank projects can be an excellent way to start
exporting. Many U.S. small business exporters have benefited
from large MDB projects through subcontracting awards from larger
A list of MDBs is included in Part II, The Exporter’s
Directory. From their Washington, D.C. headquarters, many MDBs
hold monthly seminars to acquaint businesses with the MDB
procurement process. Additionally, the DOC’s Office of Major
Projects can be of assistance in identifying contracting and
subcontracting opportunities.

Once you locate a potential foreign buyer or representative,
the next step is to qualify them by reputation and financial
position. First, obtain as much information as possible from the
company itself. Here are a few sample questions you will want to
. What is the company’s history and what are the
qualifications and backgrounds of the principal officers?
. Does the company have adequate trained personnel,
facilities, resources to devote to your business?
. What is their current sales volume?
. What is the size of their inventory?
. How will they market your product (retail, wholesale or
. Which territories or areas of the country do they
. Do they have other U.S. or foreign clients? Are any of
these clients your competitors? It is important to obtain
references from several current clients.
. What types of customers do they serve?
. Do you publish a catalogue?
. What is their sales force?

When you have this background information and are
comfortable about proceeding, then obtain a credit report about
their financial position. DOC’s World Trade Data Reports
(WTDRs), available from your local District ITA Office, are
compiled by US&FCS officers. A WTDR can usually provide an
in-depth profile of the prospective company you are
There are also several commercial services for qualifying
potential partners, such as Dun & Bradstreet’s Business
Identification Service and Graydon reports. U.S. banks and their
correspondent banks or branches overseas, and foreign banks
located in the United States can provide specific financial
In this chapter we have discussed methods of market entry,
how to find potential foreign buyers and representatives and how
to qualify whom you will be doing business with overseas.
Advance market research and preparation is the best way for a
small business to define a potential export market.
The next question that needs to be explored involves how to
accomplish the business of exporting — that is, how the deal
should be structured, the topic of Chapter 4, “The Export

Chapter 4

The Export Transaction
Pricing products to be competitive in international markets
can be a challenge; pricing that works in one market may be
totally uncompetitive in another. Although there is no one
formula for establishing prices for exported products, there are
a number of strategic and technical considerations that you can
make in order to determine an appropriate pricing structure.
A pricing strategy is a key component of your export
marketing plan. The selected pricing structure should be an
integral part of your market penetration objectives. Your goals
will vary depending on the target overseas market. Are you
entering the market with a new or unique product? Are you
selling excess or obsolete products? Can your product demand a
higher price because of brand recognition or superior quality?
Maybe you are willing to reduce profits to gain market share for
long-term growth. Your pricing decisions will be affected by
your company’s goals.
It is important to obtain as much information as possible on
local market prices as part of your market research. Pricing
information can be collected in several ways. One source is
overseas distributors and agents of similar products of
equivalent quality. When feasible, traveling to the country
where your products will be sold provides an excellent
opportunity to gather pricing information. U.S. Department of
Commerce (DOC) can also assist in determining appropriate prices
through its Customized Sales Survey.

Joseph S. Brown III, President of Bruce Foods Corp.,
obtained pricing information for food products sold in overseas
markets using the Commerce Department’s Customized Sales Survey.
Although exporting since 1946, Brown is constantly on the
look-out for new markets for his products: “We now export to 75
countries,” the Louisiana business owner says.

To compile the Customized Sales Survey, DOC’s US&FCS
research specialists in the target country interview importers,
distributors, retailers, wholesalers, end-users and local
producers of comparable products. They also inspect similar
products on the market. Your customized report, available for a
fee, is usually completed within 45 days.

Marketing Your Product
To successfully market a product in a domestic market, the
manufacturer must take into consideration consumer preference,
industry standards, correct labelling and other consumer-driven
When entering a foreign market, the manufacturer should
consider the tastes and preferences in each market as part of
marketing strategy. Frequently, only a small change may be
required to successfully market the product. The color of the
product, the design of the package, the size of the product all
may need adjustment.
Consideration should be given to the product name (it may
inadvertently have a negative connotation in the local language),
cultural and/or religious connotations, appearance of container,
compliance to standards (different electrical power, metric
dimensions and local product regulations).
Another consideration when planning market strategy is
understanding ISO 9000. The International Organization of
Standardization (ISO) was founded in 1946 by 25 national
standardization organizations including the American National
Standards Institute (ANSI). Ninety countries now hold membership
in ISO.
In 1987, the ISO issued ISO 9000, a series of five documents
(ISO 9000, 9001, 9002, 9003 and 9004) that provide guidance on
the selection and implementation of an appropriate quality
management program (system) for a supplier’s operations. The
purpose of the ISO 9000 series is to document, implement and
demonstrate the quality assurance systems used by companies that
supply goods and services internationally. ISO standards are
required to be reviewed every five years. Revised versions are
expected to be published in early 1994. Information on the
status of these revisions can be obtained from:

The American Society for Quality Control (ASQC)
611 East Wisconsin Avenue
Milwaukee, WI 53202
Phone: 414/272-8575 or 800/248-1946
FAX: 414/272-1734

There are three ways for a manufacturer to prove compliance
with the requirements of one of the ISO 9000 standards.
Manufacturers may evaluate their quality system and self-declare
the conformance of the system to one of the ISO 9000 quality
systems. Second-party evaluations occur when the buyer requires
and conducts quality system evaluations of suppliers. These
evaluations are mandatory only for companies wishing to become
suppliers to that buyer. Third-party quality systems and
evaluations and registrations may be voluntary or mandatory and
are conducted by persons or organizations independent of both the
supplier and the buyer. Interpretations of an ISO 9000 standard
may not be consistent from one registrar to another.
The supplier’s quality system is registered, not an
individual product. Consequently, quality system registration
does not imply product conformity to any given set of
requirements. The demand for ISO 9000 registration in Europe and
elsewhere seems to be coming primarily from the marketplace as a
contractual rather than a regulatory requirement. As conformity
to the ISO 9000 standards becomes recognized and required by
foreign and domestic buyers and used by manufacturers as a
competitive marketing tool, the demand for ISO 9000 compliance is
expected to increase in non-regulated areas. It is therefore
critical for manufacturers to determine what are their buyers’
requirements regarding ISO 9000 compliance. Additional
information on U.S., foreign and international voluntary
standards, government regulations and rules of certification for
nonagricultural products is available from:

National Center for Standards and Certification
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
TRF Building, Room A163
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
Phone: 301/975-4040
FAX: 301/926-1559

For information on the EC 1992 Single Market program, copies
of Single Market regulations, background information on the EC or
assistance regarding specific EC trade opportunities or potential
problems, contact:

The Office of EC Affairs
International Trade Administration, Room 3036
14th and Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-5823
FAX: 202/482-2155

Methods of International Pricing
The cost-plus method of international pricing is based on
your domestic price plus exporting costs (documentation expenses,
freight charges, customs duties and international sales and
promotional costs). Any costs not applicable, such as domestic
marketing costs, are subtracted. The cost-plus method allows you
to maintain your domestic profit margin percentage, and thus to
set a suitable price. This method does not, however, take into
account local market conditions. Your price may be too high to
compete in a foreign market.
Different marketing costs and/or modifications to the
product could change the cost basis dramatically, making the
product either more or less costly for export. As a result,
using the “marginal-cost” method provides a more realistic means
of determining true cost of producing your product for export.
To use the marginal-cost method, first determine the fixed
costs of producing an additional unit for export. Fixed costs
include production cost, overhead, administration and research
and development. A cost saving may be realized if additional
units of the product can be produced without increasing the fixed
costs. There may also be instances where certain fixed costs are
covered by domestic production and do not need to be added to
export expenses.
Product modification expenses, dictated by the target
market, are then added to the production costs to establish a
“floor price.” The floor price serves as a threshold for the
firm to know when it would incur a loss. Using the floor price
as a base, variable export costs for the product can be added.
Some of the variable costs will be one-time or start-up expenses
that should be discounted appropriately. Variable expenses

Local regulations and customs may require special labelling,
translated instructions or different packaging to appeal to local
tastes. The selected mode of distribution may also require a
particular kind of packaging.

Foreign Market Research
There may be fees for specialized services and publications
used to gather market information.

Advertising and Marketing
Firms selling directly into new markets will most likely be
responsible for the entire promotional effort. The firm can
incur high initial outlays to establish product recognition in
the new market. If an agent, distributor or trading company is
employed, they can handle advertising and marketing as part of
their contract.

Translation, Consulting and Legal Fees
Product instructions, sales agreements and other
documentation typically will need to be translated into the local
language. Expert translation of product labeling and
instructions will enhance local marketing. Although many sales
agreements are standard, it is advisable to have legal counsel
review binding documents.

Foreign Agent/Distributor Product Information and TrainingAgents
and distributors may require special training in order to
effectively market and service your products. This is true even
if the agent sells products similar to your firm’s products.
Training will not only enable the agent to better represent your
company’s interests but gain a better understanding of your
particular product.

After-Sales Service Costs
Product warranties and service contracts will enhance your
product’s image as a quality item. An appropriate after sales
service guarantee can support your sales efforts in the new
market. Do not, however, promise service or warranties based on
U.S. standards that you cannot deliver.

After taking these expenses into account, insurance,
freight, duties and a profit margin can be added to arrive at a
customer price. Depending on the market, currency fluctuations
can affect significantly your locally based profit margin and the
final price offered to the customer. For new-to-export
companies, price products in U.S. dollars and request payment in
dollars. This is not an unusual request.

High-Price Option
This approach may be appropriate if your company is selling
a new product or if you are trying to position your product or
service at the upper-end of the market. Selecting this option
may attract competition and limit the market for your product
while, at the same time, produce big profit margins.

Moderate-Price Option
This is a lower risk approach as contrasted to the high- or
low-price option. Here you should be able to match competitors,
build a market position and produce reasonable profit margins.

Low-Price Option
This approach may be relevant if you are trying to reduce
inventory and do not have a long term commitment to the market.
You will, no doubt, impede competition but also produce low
profit margins.

There may be no single strategy that is ideal for every
company. Often companies draw upon a mix of options for each
market or product.

Setting Terms of Sale
Price Quotations
The pro-forma invoice is the most commonly used document to
give price quotations to potential customers. The quotation in a
pro-forma invoice is usually considered binding, although prices
may change prior to final sale. To prepare the invoice, you
should give a detailed description of the product, an itemized
list of charges and sale terms. Prices should be quoted in
United States dollars to reduce foreign exchange risks. The
invoice should also indicate the period during which the price
quotation is valid.
You should be familiar with the common terms of sale used in
international trade before preparing your pro-forma invoice.
International Commercial Terms (INCOTERMS) are the universally
recognized terms used in export and import contracts. These
terms refer to the rights and obligations of each party: who
pays what costs; when title to goods is transferred; and where
the goods should be delivered. A complete list of INCOTERMS
published in the book Incoterms 1990 can be obtained from the
International Chamber of Commerce and should be a permanent part
of your business library (see Part II, The Exporter’s Directory).


SHIPPER: Reference No. RB20693
Smith and Jones Co. Date: July 18, 1993
5555 Railroad Ave.
New York, N.Y. 10001 Customer P.O. No.
Terms of Payment:
Estimated Date of Shipment

Grupo Estevez, S.A. de C.V. Juarez Industriale
Tamales No. 1 Piso 2 454 Blvd. Cortez
12345 Cd. Polanco Mexico 11115 Mexico D.F. Mexico

VIA: Aero Cortez

100 Computer US $50.00 US $5,000.00
FOB factory 5,000.00
fees 100.00
Air freight 1,200.00
Five (5)
sealed cartons Insurance 20.00
Gross weight:
10 lbs. C.I.F. Mexico 6,320.00

Authorized signature/Title

The above offering is based on current prices and is valid
60 days from invoice date.
*NOTE: This pro-forma invoice is only a sample. It is
advisable to contact a freight forwarder in advance of shipping.


Sales Contracts
Knowing how to include INCOTERMS in a contract is important,
but this represents only one aspect of the sales agreement.
Legal rights and obligations of the parties should be spelled out
in a single document, which can be incorporated into the final
invoice. Frequently, the terms and conditions are contained on
the back of the invoice.
Some of the terms and conditions necessary in a written
sales agreement include:

Delivery Terms — Risk of Loss
A force majeure clause is standard in most agreements. This
clause excuses the exporter from responsibility where a default
in performance is caused by events beyond the exporter’s control,
such as war, acts of God or labor problems.

Payment and Finance Terms
In addition to defining the terms of payment, provisions
should be included for late payments, partial payments and
remedies for non-payment. The terms of payment should consider
the use of letters of credit.

Sales contracts generally describe the goods and their
qualities, workmanship and durability. In some cases, the
exporter is obligated by the law in the country of import. The
importer will require the exporter to warrant that the goods meet
certain standards of construction and performance.

Acceptance of Goods
Frequently, the importer will insist upon the right to
inspect the goods upon delivery; if found defective, the importer
can reject them and refuse to pay. However, the importer is
still liable for country-of-importation duties and other taxes.
The export documents should reflect any such requirements.

Intellectual Property Rights
Protection of the exporter’s patents, trademarks or
copyrights should be assured in the agreement. However,
protection under the laws of the foreign country are not
automatic, and you should not assume that your product is

The obligations of the parties for payment of taxes other
than customs duties should be defined in writing.

Dispute settlement
It is advisable to specify how and where any disputes will
be resolved, as well as which nation’s law would be applied.
Bear in mind that different countries have varying arbitration
laws and systems which may apply.

If you choose to use an agent or distributor, it will be
necessary to develop a formal contractual agreement. Agent and
distributor agreements spell out in more detail the issues
mentioned above and define other aspects of the relationship
between the parties to the agreement.
In the contract it is important to:
. specify the goods and/or services covered;
. describe the agent or distributor’s sales territory,
and whether they will have exclusive or non-exclusive sales
. set the length of the term for which the agreement is
applicable and agree upon specified minimum sales volumes and
. outline protection of intellectual property;
. describe other types of obligations imposed on the
parties, violations of which would justify termination of the
contract; and
. list specific intellectual property rights granted to
the agent or distributor.

When negotiating and drafting contractual agreements, it is
recommended that you consult an attorney with experience in
international trade and exporting. Your company’s business
lawyer may be able to handle your questions or refer you to an
“export-oriented” attorney. Your local bar association may
provide referral services, as well.
Under agreement with the Federal Bar Association and DOC,
SBA sponsors the Export Legal Assistance Network (ELAN). ELAN is
a network of attorneys located throughout the United States who
specialize in international trade. Your local SBA office can
assist in locating an ELAN attorney who will provide a free,
initial legal consultation to discuss your export-related
As an initial introduction, however, you may want to review
the information contained in International Business Practices,
which covers the legal aspects of doing business in over 100
countries. Copies are available from US&FCS offices or from the
Government Printing Office.
Terms for financing export sales should be discussed during
contract negotiations. While the U.S. seller will want to be
paid as soon as possible, the foreign buyer will want to delay
payment as long as possible, preferably until after the goods are
resold. These two conflicting objectives will factor into any
negotiations on export financing.
In addition to reaching a compromise on the method of
payment, the U.S. exporter must also be able to offer the foreign
buyer favorable financing terms — otherwise the sale could be
lost to a foreign competitor with an equivalent product but
better payment terms.
The final step in completing the export transaction is
arranging for payment, the subject of Chapter 5, “Export

Chapter 5

Export Financing


Few would disagree that small businesses must look overseas
for profit opportunities in the 1990s. However, to compete
successfully, small firms must offer financing arrangements that
are competitive with exporters of other nations. This chapter
will discuss three major influences on an exporter’s ability to
arrange competitive financing:
. today’s banking environment
. how to approach a lender
. methods of payment


In the United States, most small firms turn first to their
local banks for export finance assistance. However, during the
past decade many banks have decided not to focus on export
The banks’ reasons for doing so have varied — many cut
their international operations due to the huge losses they
incurred on overseas debt; others may have chosen to concentrate
on more lucrative lines of business, such as home equity loans or
mergers and acquisitions.
Consequently, during the 1980s export finance expertise in
many U.S. banks deteriorated. Even today, most smaller banks do
not retain any staff with expertise in international trade. This
is not to say, however, that such help is unavailable — only
that small businesses must be persistent and tenacious in their
efforts to find it. For example, if a small business loan
officer is unwilling to work with his or her bank’s international
staff (or the bank is unwilling to work with a correspondent),
exporters should consider establishing a second banking
relationship or, if necessary, moving all their accounts to a
more aggressive lender. Don’t be afraid to shop.
Given the difficulty most small business exporters face when
seeking financing, it is imperative that financial arrangements
be made in advance. Finding a lender willing to consider such a
request requires that the borrower ensure that the purpose of the
loan makes sense for the business, and that the request is a
reasonable amount. Prospective borrowers also should understand
some key distinctions before beginning discussions with a lender.


Venture Capitalists and Lenders
Before approaching a bank for financial assistance, small
exporters should understand the distinction between venture
capitalists and lenders. Venture capitalists invest in a
business with the expectation that as the business grows, their
equity in the business will grow exponentially. On the other
hand, lenders are not in the venture capital business — they
make their money on the difference between the rate at which they
borrow money and the rate at which they lend to their customers.
International Trade Services and Export Lending
Small exporters should also understand the distinction
between international trade services and international trade
lending. Although many banks offer international trade services,
such as advising and negotiating letters of credit, the banks’
international divisions are not authorized to lend money.
International lenders, on the other hand, have the authority to
make loans, as well as provide related services. Exporters
should verify that the bank officer with whom they are dealing
has the authority to lend for an export transaction.

Working Capital Financing and Trade Financing
It is also important to note the difference between general
working capital financing and trade financing. A small firm’s
ability to qualify for general working capital financing depends
on, among other things, the strength of its balance sheet and its
prospects for generating sufficient earnings over the life of a
loan to repay it. Trade finance, on the other hand, generally
refers to financing individual transactions (or a series of like
transactions). In addition, trade finance loans are often
self-liquidating — that is, the lending bank stipulates that all
sales proceeds are to be collected by it, and then applies the
proceeds to pay down the loan. The remainder is credited to the
account of the borrower.
The self-liquidating feature of trade finance is critical to
many small, undercapitalized businesses. Lenders who may
otherwise have reached their lending limits for such businesses
may nevertheless finance individual export sales, if the lenders
are assured that the loan proceeds will be used solely for
pre-export production; and any export sale proceeds will first be
collected by them before the balance is passed on to the
exporter. Given the extent of control lenders can exercise over
such transactions and the existence of guaranteed payment
mechanisms unique to — or established for — international
trade, trade finance can be less risky for lenders than general
working capital loans.

Pre-export, Accounts Receivable and Market Development Financing
Exporters should understand the distinctions between the
various types of trade finance. Most small businesses need
pre-export financing to help with the expense of gearing up for a
particular export sale. Loan proceeds are commonly used to pay
for labor and materials or to acquire inventory for export sales.
Others may be interested in foreign accounts receivable
financing. In that case, exporters can borrow from their banks
an amount based on the volume and quality of such accounts
receivable. Although banks rarely lend 100 percent of the value
of the accounts receivable, many will advance up to 80 percent of
the value of qualified accounts. Foreign credit insurance (such
as Eximbank’s Export Credit Insurance Program) is often used to
enhance the quality of such accounts.
Financing for foreign market development activities, such as
participation in overseas trade missions or trade shows, is often
difficult for small businesses to arrange. Most banks are
reluctant to finance such activities because, for many small
firms, their ability to repay such loans depends on their success
in consummating sales while on a mission — prospects that in
many cases are speculative. Although difficult for many small
firms to do, the recommended source for financing such activities
is through the working capital of the firm or, in certain cases,
through the use of personal credit cards.
Finally, take time to make sure your banker understands your
business and products. Have a detailed export plan ready and,
most important, be able to clearly show how and when a loan will
be repaid.


A small business exporter’s principal concern should be to
ensure that he or she will be paid in full and on time. Foreign
buyers may have concerns as well, including uncertainty that the
goods ordered will meet the necessary specifications and arrive
in a timely manner. As a result, it is imperative that the terms
of payment be agreed upon in advance and in a manner satisfactory
to both parties.
The payment method exporters use can significantly affect
the financial risk of a particular export sale. In general, the
more generous the sales terms are to a foreign buyer, the greater
the risk to the exporter. The primary methods of payment for
international transactions, ranked in order of most secure to the
exporter to least secure, include:

. payment in advance
. letters of credit
. documentary collections (drafts)
. consignment
. open account

Payment in advance
Paying in advance is often too expensive and risky for
foreign buyers. Yet, this method of payment is not uncommon.
Requiring full payment in advance may cause lost sales to a
foreign (or even another domestic) competitor who is able to
offer more attractive payment terms. In some cases, however,
where the manufacturing process is specialized, lengthy or
capital-intensive, it may be reasonable to insist upon partial
payment in advance, or on progress payments.

Letters of Credit (LC)
A letter of credit is an internationally recognized
instrument issued by a bank on behalf of its client, the
purchaser. The LC actually represents the bank’s guarantee to
pay the seller, provided the conditions specified on it are
fulfilled. Of course, the purchaser pays its bank a fee to
render this service.
The rationale behind the use of an LC is reliance by the
seller on the credit worthiness of the bank, which is normally
more reliable than that of the purchaser. It is also easier to
verify by the seller’s bank. Moreover, this vehicle can be
structured to protect the purchaser because no payment obligation
arises until the goods have been satisfactorily delivered as
The conditions of the LC are spelled out on the LC itself.
When the conditions of delivery have been satisfied (usually by
the documented, satisfactory and timely delivery of the goods),
the purchaser’s bank makes the required payment directly to the
seller’s bank in accordance with the terms of payment (in 15, 30,
60 or 90 days, whichever is specified).
The greatest degree of protection is afforded to the seller
when the LC has been issued by the buyer’s bank and confirmed by
the seller’s bank. LCs may be utilized for one-time
transactions, or they can cover multi-shipments, depending upon
what is agreed between the parties. Also, make sure you can
deliver within the terms of the LC. It is suggested that you
review the details of such documentation with a bank that has LC

. Agrees to buy product . Agrees to ship goods if LC
is opened
. Requests bank to issue LC . LC assures payment
if proper documents are

. Ships goods and submits
shipping documents to bank
for payment
. Verifies documents for

. Payment is made when . Payment received
documents received or accepted immediately or upon
maturity of accepted draft

Documentary Collection (Drafts)
Documentary collections involve the use of a draft, drawn by
the seller on the buyer, requiring the buyer to pay the face
amount either on sight (sight draft) or on a specified date in
the future (time draft). The draft is an unconditional order to
make such payment in accordance with its terms, which specify the
documents needed before title to the goods will be passed.
Because title to the goods does not pass until the draft is
paid or accepted, both the buyer and seller are protected.
However, if the buyer defaults on payment of the draft, the
seller may have to pursue collection through the courts (or
possibly, by arbitration, if such had been agreed upon between
the parties). The use of drafts involves a certain level of
risk; but they are less expensive for the purchaser than letters
of credit.



. Agrees to buy products . Agrees to be paid via
documentary collection
. Ships goods and submits
shipping documents to bank
for collection or

. Documents released to buyer . Seller receives payment at
against payment or acceptance sight or upon acceptance

When goods are sold subject to consignment, no money is
received by the exporter until after the goods have been sold by
the purchaser. Title to the goods remains with the exporter
until such time as all the purchase conditions are satisfied. As
a practical matter, consignment is very risky. There is
generally no way to predict how long it might take to sell the
goods; moreover, if they are never sold, the exporter would have
to pay the costs of recovering them from the foreign consignee.

Open account
An open account transaction means that the goods are
manufactured and delivered before payment is required (for
example, payment could be due 14, 30, or 60 days following
shipment or delivery). In the United States, sales are likely to
be made on an open-account basis if the manufacturer has been
dealing with the buyer over a long period of time and has
established a secure working relationship. In international
business transactions, this method of payment cannot be used
safely unless the buyer is credit worthy and the country of
destination is politically and economically stable. However, in
certain instances it might be possible to discount open accounts
receivable with a factoring company or other financial
institution, referred to above.

The following diagram assesses the relative strengths and
weaknesses of each method of payment:


Cash in Before After payment None Dependent
Advance shipment upon

Letter After ship- After payment Very little Relies
of ment, when or none on
Credit documents depending exporter
complying on LC ship goods
with LC are terms

Document- On presenta- After payment If draft un- Relies on
ary Col- tion of draft paid, must exporter to
lection to buyer dispose of ship goods
Sight goods

Document- On maturity Before payment Relies on Almost none
ary Col- of draft buyer to pay
lection draft; no
Time Draft control of goods

Consign- After sale Before payment High Low

Open After ship- Before payment Relies on None
Account ment, as buyer to pay
agreed his account


Commercial Banks
International trade transactions traditionally have been
financed by commercial banks. Commercial banks can make loans
for pre-export activities. They can also help process letters of
credit, drafts and other methods of payment discussed in this
chapter. Banks have also become increasingly involved in making
export loans backed by United States government export loan
Many larger banks have international departments which can
help with your company’s particular export finance needs. If
your bank does not have an international department, it probably
has a correspondent relationship with a larger bank that can
assist you.

Private Trade Finance Companies
Private trade finance companies are becoming increasingly
more commonplace. They utilize a variety of financing techniques
in return for fees, commissions, participation in the
transactions or combinations thereof. International trade
associations, such as a District Export Council, can assist you
in locating a private trade finance company in your area.

Export Trading and Management Companies
Both EMCs and ETCs provide varying ranges of export
services, including international market research and overseas
marketing, insurance, legal assistance, product design,
transportation, foreign order processing, warehousing, overseas
distribution, foreign exchange and even taking title to a
supplier’s goods. All of these services can leverage the limited
resources of small businesses.

Factoring Houses
Factoring houses, also called factors, purchase export
receivables on a discounted basis. Using factors can enable the
exporter to receive immediate payment for goods while at the same
time alleviating the hassles associated with overseas
Factors purchase export receivables for a percentage fee at
2-7 percent below invoice value, depending on the market and type
of buyer. The percentage rate will depend on whether the factor
purchases the receivables on a recourse or non-recourse basis.
In the case of a non-recourse purchase, the exporter is not bound
to repay the factoring house if the foreign buyer defaults or
other collection problems arise. Therefore, the percentage
charge will be greater with non-recourse purchases.

Forfaiting Houses
Similar to factoring, exporters relinquish their rights to
future payment in return for immediate cash. Where a debt
obligation exists between the parties, it is sold to a third
party on a non-recourse basis, but is guaranteed by an
intermediary bank.
One U.S. exporter which used forfaiting found the benefits

Ed Lamb, President of Custom Die and Insert of Lafayette,
Louisiana, was able to sell a 180-day letter of credit through a
forfaiting house and got paid 178 days sooner. Forfaiting
enabled Custom Die and Insert to consummate a $2.3 million-dollar
export order to the Middle East.


Because private sector financing providers will only assume
limited risk regarding foreign transactions, the U.S. government
has become increasingly involved in providing export financing
U.S. government export financing assistance comes in the
form of guarantees made to U.S. commercial banks which in turn
make the loans to exporters. Federal agencies, as well as
certain state governments, have their own particular programs as
noted below:

U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA)
SBA provides financial and business development assistance
to help small businesses develop export markets. The SBA assists
businesses in obtaining the capital needed to explore, establish
or expand international markets. SBA’s export loans are
available under SBA’s guarantee program. As a prospective
applicant, you should request that your lender seek SBA
participation, if the lender is unable or unwilling to make a
direct loan.
The financing staff of each SBA district and branch office
administers the financial assistance programs. You can contact
the finance division of your nearest SBA office for a list of
participating lenders. The business development staff of each
SBA district and branch office can provide counseling on how to
request export financial assistance from a lender.
Borrowers can use different SBA loan programs and types of
loan guarantees simultaneously, as long as the total
SBA-guaranteed portion does not exceed the agency’s $750,000
statutory loan guarantee limit to any one borrower. The lender
may charge a maximum interest rate of 2.75 percentage points
above the New York prime interest rate, or 2.25 percentage points
above New York prime if the maturity is less than seven years.

Regular Business Loan Program
The SBA can guarantee up to 90 percent of a bank loan up to
$155,000. For larger loans, the maximum guaranty is 85 percent
up to $750,000.
Small businesses that need money for fixed assets and for
working capital may be eligible for the SBA’s regular 7(a)
business loan guarantee program. Loan guarantees for fixed-asset
acquisition have a maximum maturity of 25 years. Guarantees for
general purpose working capital loans have a maximum maturity of
seven years. Export trading companies (ETCs) and export
management companies (EMCs) also may qualify for the SBA’s
business loan guarantee program.
To be eligible, the applicant’s business generally must be
operated for profit and fall within size standards set by SBA.
Loans cannot be made to businesses involved in creation or
distribution of ideas or opinions, such as newspapers, magazines
and academic schools. Other types of ineligible borrowers
include businesses engaged in speculation or investment in rental
real estate.

Export Revolving Line of Credit Program
The Export Revolving Line of Credit (ERLC) Program offers a
credit line up to 36 months. Any number of withdrawals and
repayments can be made as long as they do not exceed the dollar
limit of the credit line, and the disbursements are made within
the stated maturity period. Loan maturities are generally for 12
months, with options to renew.
Loans can be used to finance labor and materials for
manufacturing or wholesaling for export, to develop foreign
markets or to finance foreign accounts receivable. Foreign
business travel and participation in trade shows are also among
the eligible uses, but a regular 7(a) business loan may be more
appropriate for these purposes.
Applicants must satisfy eligibility criteria established for
all SBA loans. Also, the applicant must have been in business —
not necessarily exporting — for at least 12 months’ continuous
operation before filing an application. The 12-month requirement
may be waived by the SBA regional office, if the firm’s
management has sufficient export experience or enough management
ability to warrant an exception.

The International Trade Loan Program
The International Trade Loan Program provides long-term
financing to help small businesses compete more effectively and
to expand or develop export markets.
Loan maturities cannot exceed 25 years, excluding the
working capital portion of the financing. The SBA’s guarantee
cannot exceed 85 percent of the loan amount. The agency’s
maximum share for facilities or equipment loans is $1 million,
plus $250,000 for working capital.
Proceeds may be used to purchase or upgrade facilities or
equipment, and to make other improvements that will be used
within the U.S. to produce goods or services.
No debt payment is allowed. Proceeds can be used to buy
land and buildings; build new facilities; renovate, improve or
expand existing facilities; and purchase or recondition
machinery, equipment and fixtures. The working capital portion
of the borrowing could be in the form of either an ERLC or a
portion of the term loan.
Applicants must establish either of the following to meet
eligibility requirements:

. Loan proceeds will significantly expand existing export
markets or develop new ones.
. The applicant’s business is adversely affected by
import competition.

Small Business Investment Company (SBIC) Financing
A Small Business Investment Company (SBIC), approved and
licensed by the SBA, may also provide equity or working capital
exceeding the agency’s $750,000 statutory maximum. SBICs can
invest in export trading companies in which banks have equity
participation as long as other SBIC requirements are met.

Export-Import Bank of the United States (Eximbank)
Eximbank is an independent federal government agency
responsible for assisting the export financing of U.S. goods and
services through a variety of information service and insurance,
loan and guarantee programs. Eximbank has undertaken a major
effort to reach more small business exporters with better
financing facilities and services, to increase the value of these
facilities and services to the exporting community, and to
increase the dollar amount of Eximbank’s authorizations
supporting small business exports.
Eximbank’s export financing hotline provides information on
the availability and use of export credit insurance, guarantees,
direct and intermediary loans extended to finance the sale of
U.S. goods and service abroad.
Briefing programs are offered by Eximbank to the small
business community. The program includes regular seminars, group
briefings and individual discussions held both within the Bank
and around the country.
Export credit insurance programs reduce an exporter’s risk
and can be obtained through an insurance broker or from
Eximbank’s Insurance Division. A wide range of policies is
available to accommodate many different export credit insurance
needs. Insurance coverage:

. protects the exporter against the failure of foreign
buyers to pay their credit obligations for commercial or
political reasons;
. encourages exporters to offer foreign buyers
competitive terms of payment;
. supports an exporter’s prudent penetration of higher
risk foreign markets; and
. gives exporters and their banks greater financial
flexibility in handling overseas accounts receivable.

During the first two years, the new-to-export insurance
policy offers a short-term (up to 180 days) insurance policy
geared to meet the particular credit requirements of smaller,
less experienced exporters. Under the policy, Eximbank assumes
95 percent of the commercial and 100 percent of the political
risk involved in extending credit to the exporter’s overseas
customers. This policy frees the smaller exporter from “first
loss” commercial risk deductible provisions that are usually
found in regular insurance policies. The special coverage is
available to companies which are just beginning to export, or
have an average annual export credit sales volume of less than
$2,000,000 for the past two years, and meet the SBA definitions
of small business.
The umbrella policy also covers short-term receivables of
companies with only limited experience in export trade. These
policies are available to commercial lenders, state agencies,
finance companies, export trading and management companies,
insurance brokers and similar agencies to insure their clients’
receivables. Exporters are eligible if they have average annual
export credit sales of less than $2,000,000 for the past two
years and meet the SBA definitions of small business.

Loan Programs
The Working Capital Loan Guarantee Program assists small
businesses in obtaining crucial working capital to fund their
export activities. The program guarantees 100 percent of the
principal and interest on working capital loans extended by
commercial lenders to eligible U.S. exporters. The loan may be
used for pre-export activities such as the purchase of inventory,
raw materials, the manufacture of a product or for marketing.
Eximbank requires the working capital loan to be secured with
inventory of exportable goods, accounts receivable or by other
appropriate collateral.

Direct and Intermediary Loans
Eximbank provide two types of loans, direct loans to foreign
buyers of U.S. exports and intermediary loans to fund responsible
parties that extend loans to foreign buyers of U.S. capital and
quasi-capital goods and related services. Both the loan and
guarantee programs cover up to 85 percent of the U.S. export
value, with repayment terms of one year or more.
Direct loans of any size and long-term loans to
intermediaries are offered at the lowest interest rate permitted
under the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD) arrangement for the market and term.
Medium-term intermediary loans are structured as “standby”
loan commitments. Under this arrangement, the intermediary may
borrow against the remaining undisbursed loan at any time during
the term of the underlying debt obligation. There is a
prepayment fee if it is triggered by prepayment of the foreign

Guarantee Programs
Guarantees of the Eximbank provide repayment protection for
private sector loans to credit worthy buyers of U.S. capital
equipment and related services. The guarantee is available alone
or may be combined with an intermediary loan.
Most guarantees provide comprehensive coverage of both
political and commercial risks but political risks only coverage
is also available. The guarantee covers 100 percent of principal
and interest. In the event of a default, the guaranteed lender
must file a claim no less than 30 and no more than 150 days after
the default. The claim will be paid within five business days
after receipt.
Customary repayment terms for capital goods in international
trade are:

Contract Value Maximum Term
Less than $75,000 2 years
$75,000 – $150,000 3 years
$150,000 – $300,000 4 years
$300,000 or more 5-10 years, depending on the nature
of the sale and the OECD classification of the buyers’country.

Loans for projects and large product acquisitions, such as
aircraft and capital-intensive machinery, are eligible for longer
terms while lower unit value items such as automobiles and
appliances receive shorter terms.

Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC)
The United States Department of Agriculture’s Commodity
Credit Corporation (CCC) operates Export Credit Guarantee
Programs to provide United States agricultural exporters or
financial institutions a guarantee that they will be repaid for
short- and intermediate-term commercial export financing to
foreign buyers. These programs protect against commercial or
noncommercial risk if the importer’s bank fails to make payment.
Under one program, the CCC will guarantee credit terms of up to 3
years and under another, credit terms from 3 to 10 years are
guaranteed. (For more details, see Part II, The Exporter’s

State Export Financing Programs
A number of state-sponsored export financing and loan
guarantee programs are available. Many cities and states have
established cooperative programs with the Eximbank and can
provide specialized export finance counseling. Details of these
programs are available through each state department of commerce
or trade office.
Arkansas, California, Delaware, Georgia, Indiana, Louisiana,
Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey,
New York, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South
Carolina, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin all
provide direct or indirect export financing assistance.
Once an exporter determines the kind of export financing
assistance to be used and which payment method, the next step is
to arrange for delivery of the goods to the buyer’s destination.
It is important to assess the various transportation options
available, the subject of Chapter 6, “Transporting Goods

Chapter 6

Transporting Goods Internationally Now that financing has been
arranged, steps must be taken to ensure that the goods for export
are packed and shipped properly to reach their destination. When
transporting goods internationally, proper documentation and
correct packaging are critical to the export process.
One of the main differences between selling domestically and
exporting is the documentation required. Providing proper
documentation with your shipments is essential, if the goods are
to arrive safely and on time.
Although the paperwork involved in exporting may be more
burdensome and costly than that required for domestic sales, it
should not deter you. Consider the case of Hood Equipment Inc.
of Iron River, Wisconsin:

“We began exporting our forestry equipment in 1977. Now
exports amount to 40 percent of our sales. While export
documentation requirements can be time consuming, 40 percent of
our sales depend on it so we have to do it,” says export manager
Joyce Hood. Ms. Hood credits her company’s international freight
forwarder as “a great help.”


The international freight forwarder acts as an agent for the
exporter in moving cargo to the overseas destination. These
agents are familiar with the import/export rules and regulations
of foreign countries, methods of shipping, United States
government regulations and the documents connected with foreign
Freight forwarders can assist with an order from the start
by advising the exporter of the freight costs, port charges,
consular fees, costs of special documentation and insurance costs
as well as their handling fees — all of which help in preparing
the pro-forma invoice and price quotations. Freight forwarders
may also recommend the best type of packing for protecting the
merchandise in transit; they can arrange to have the merchandise
packed at the port or containerized. The cost for their services
is a legitimate export cost that should be figured into the price
charged to the customer.
When the order is ready to ship, freight forwarders should
be able to review the letter of credit, commercial invoices,
packing list to ensure that everything is in order. Freight
forwarders can also reserve the necessary space on board an ocean
vessel, if the exporter desires.
The exporter may ask the freight forwarder to make
arrangements with the customs broker to ensure that the goods
comply with customs export documentation regulations. In
addition, they may have the goods delivered to the carrier in
time for loading. Freight forwarders may also prepare a bill of
lading and any special required documentation. After shipment,
they can forward all documents directly to the customer or to the
paying bank.
In preparing your goods for international transport, you
must first determine what mode of transport you will use. When
shipping to Mexico and Canada, land transportation may be the
preferred method of transport. Other forms of international
shipments are sea and air.
Maritime shipping is almost always slower and less expensive
than air. However, an exporter must factor in the additional
costs of sea freight, such as surface transportation to the dock.
Another factor is the time value of money: payment may not be
made until the ship reaches its destination — ocean freight can
be significantly longer than air freight. Your international
freight forwarder can assist in weighing the pros and cons of
different modes of transportation.
Once you have decided on the best mode of transporting your
goods, you must begin to compile the necessary documents.


Export Documentation Checklist — Documents Prepared Before the

Commercial Invoice/Consular Invoice
After the pro-forma invoice is accepted, the exporter must
prepare a commercial invoice. The commercial invoice is
necessary for both the exporter and importer.
The exporter needs the commercial invoice to prove ownership
and secure payment. The description of the goods on the
commercial invoice must correspond exactly to the description in
the letter of credit or other method of payment. There can be no
The importer needs the commercial invoice since it is often
used by Customs authorities to assess duties. For this reason,
it is common practice to prepare a commercial invoice in English
and in the language of the destination country. The freight
forwarder can advise you when a translated copy is necessary.
Similar to a commercial invoice, a consular invoice is
required by certain countries. The consular invoice must be
prepared in the language of the destination country and can be
obtained from the country’s consulate, and often must be
In some countries, the commercial invoice must be prepared
on a special form known as a “customs invoice.” Your importer
may request this of you.

Export License
Export controls are based on the type of goods being shipped
and their ultimate destination. Most exports do not require a
license, per se. Technically, most exports are shipped under a
“general” license which does not require an application.
Should your particular export be subject to export controls,
then a “validated” license must be obtained. In general, your
export would require a “validated” license if export of the goods
would: threaten United States national security; affect certain
foreign policies of the United States; or create short supply in
domestic markets. Check with the U.S. Department of Commerce’s
(DOC’s) Bureau of Export Administration (BEA) to determine if
your product may be subject to export controls (see Part II, The
Exporter’s Directory).

Shipper’s Export Declaration (SED)
The most common document used by exporters is the Shipper’s
Export Declaration (Form 7525-V), for mail shipments valued at
more than $500, and required for other shipments valued at more
than $2,500. In addition, a SED must be prepared for all
shipments covered by an Individually Validated Export License
(IVL), regardless of value. The SED enables the Bureau of the
Census to monitor for statistical purposes the kinds of products
being exported from the United States. The SED must be presented
to the carrier before the shipment departs.
A sample SED follows:

A Shipper’s Export Declaration Form 7525-V cannot be reproduced
here. The form is available through the Superintendent of
Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402 and
local Customs district offices.

Three items appearing on the SED may cause confusion:

Item 14, “Schedule B Description of Commodities”
You will need to determine the official description of the
commodity you are shipping by obtaining a copy of the United
States government publication entitled, Harmonized
System/Schedule B Statistical Classification of Domestic and
Foreign Commodities Exported from the United States and then
transfer the appropriate description onto the SED. This is
available from the Government Printing Office and from most
freight forwarders.

Item 21, “Validated License No./General License Symbol”
If your product for export is controlled, the “validated”
license number is inserted in this space. If you are exporting
under a “general license,” one of eight possible “General License
Symbols” must be noted. The three most commonly used symbols
. G-Dest (General Destination): authorizes the export of
any items not requiring a validated license
. GLV (General License Limited Value): authorizes the
export of a single shipment of limited-value items
. GTE (General License for Temporary Export): authorizes
the export of items for trade shows, training or temporary use

Item 22, ECCN (Export Control Commodity Number)
Only necessary when a “validated” license is required, the
ECCN is the number assigned to your commodity from the Bureau of
Export Administration’s Commodity Control List. This special
number must be supplied on the SED.

Shipper’s Export Declaration
SED forms can be obtained through international freight
forwarders, the Government Printing Office or local Customs
district offices. The “Exact Way to Fill Out the Shipper’s
Export Declaration” is available from the Bureau of the Census,
Washington, DC 20233.

Certificate of Origin (where applicable)
Although the commercial invoice may contain a statement of
origin, some countries (particularly those subject to certain
free trade treaties, such as Canada or the Caribbean Basin)
require Certificates of Origin. Certificates of Origin allow for
preferential duty rates if the exporter’s country has an
agreement with the importer’s country to allow entry of certain
products at lower tariffs.

Export Packing List
Considerably more detailed and informative than a standard
domestic packing list, an export packing list itemizes the
material in each individual package and indicates the type of
package: box, crate, drum, carton, etc. It shows the individual
net, legal, tare and gross weights and measurements for each
package (in both U.S. and metric systems). Package markings
should be shown along with the shipper’s and buyer’s references.
A copy of the packing list should be attached to the outside of a
package in a waterproof envelope marked “packing list enclosed.”
The list is used by the shipper or forwarding agent to determine
the total shipment weight and volume and whether the correct
cargo is being shipped. In addition, customs officials (both
U.S. and foreign) may use the list to check the cargo. The
original packing list should be forwarded along with your other
original documents in line with the conditions of sale.

Insurance Certificate
If the exporter is providing insurance, a certificate will
be needed confirming the type and amount of coverage for the
goods being shipped. Normal accepted practice for coverage is
110 percent of the CIF value. This certificate should be made in
negotiable form and must be endorsed before submitting to the

Inspection Certificate
Many foreign purchasers request that the seller certify that
the goods being shipped meet certain specifications. This
certification is usually performed by an independent inspection

Documents Used During the Inland Movement of the Goods

Shipper’s Instructions
As an exporter, you are responsible for providing your
freight forwarder with the necessary information regarding your
shipment. The more details you provide, the greater the chances
of your goods moving problem free. Your freight forwarder can
provide you with a commonly used form for noting instructions.

Inland Bill of Lading
Inland bills of lading document the transportation of goods
between inland points and the port from where the export will
emanate. Rail shipments use “waybills on rail.” “Pro-forma”
bills of lading are used in trucking.

Delivery Instructions
This document is prepared by the freight forwarder giving
instructions to the trucking or railroad company where the goods
for export are to be delivered.

Dock Receipts
This document transfers shipping obligations from the
domestic to the international carrier as the shipment reaches the

Bill of Lading/Air Waybill
Bills of lading and air waybills provide evidence to title
of the goods and set forth the international carrier’s
responsibility to transport the goods to their named destination.
There are two types of ocean bills of lading used to
transfer ownership:
. Straight (non-negotiable): provides for delivery of
goods to the person named in the bill of lading. The bill must
be marked “non-negotiable.”
. Shipper’s Order (negotiable): provides for delivery of
goods to the person named in the bill of lading or anyone
The shipper’s order is used with draft or letter-of-credit
shipments and enables the bank involved in the export transaction
to take title to the goods if the buyer defaults. The bank does
not release title to the goods to the buyer until payment is
received. The bank does not release funds to the exporter until
conditions of sale have been satisfied.
When using air freight, “air waybills” take the place of
bills of lading. Air waybills are only issued in non-negotiable
form, therefore the exporter and the bank lose title to the goods
once the shipment commences. Most air waybills also contain a
customs declaration form.

Goods shipped for export require substantially greater
handling than domestic shipments. The exporter must pack the
goods to ensure that the weight and measurements are kept to a
minimum, breakage is avoided, the container is theft proof, and
that the goods do not suffer the stresses of ocean shipment, such
as excess moisture.
In addition to proper packing, the exporter should be aware
that certain markings are necessary on goods transported
internationally. Some countries require that the country of
origin be marked on the outside of the container, and even have
regulations as to how the mark of origin should appear.
The second type of marking with which the exporter should be
familiar is labeling. Food and drugs must often carry special
labeling as determined by the laws of the country of destination.
Third, certain “shipping marks” must appear on the outside
of the package. The weight and dimensions should be visible and
any special instructions should be shown, and you may want to
repeat these instructions in the language of the importer’s
If your business is not equipped to package your goods for
export, there are export packaging companies which can perform
this service for you. Ask your international freight forwarder
for a list of export packaging companies in your area.
Many businesses, after achieving success in exporting, or as
an alternative to exporting, contemplate joint ventures or
licensing agreements with foreign companies to produce goods
overseas. Some companies even set up their own off-shore
operations. “Strategic Alliances and Foreign Investment
Opportunities” are the topic of Chapter 7.

Chapter 7

Strategic Alliances and Foreign Investment Opportunities

If your company is interested in delving further into the
international trade arena, licensing, joint ventures and
off-shore operations should be explored. While direct exporting
may be a profitable method of market entry for some businesses,
licensing to a foreign company manufacturing rights to your
product or setting up a foreign manufacturing joint venture may
be viable alternatives.
In comparison, setting up off-shore manufacturing operations
may be a more economical way of doing business: Kansas-based
Extru-Tech, Inc. is exploring this possibility:

“Because of the high cost of shipping our products and the
customs duties involved, we are seriously considering setting up
a manufacturing facility in the Far East, our biggest market,”
says Extru-Tech President Kenneth E. Matson.

This chapter will discuss the relative advantages and
disadvantages of alternatives to direct exporting, how to find
licensing and joint venture manufacturing partners and how to
finance overseas investment.


Licensing involves a contractual arrangement whereby a
company licenses the rights to certain technological know-how,
design and intellectual property to a foreign company in return
for royalties or other kinds of payment. This arrangement worked
well for a small business exporter from Virginia:

“We export our ‘Peace Frogs’ T-shirts directly to Japan, but
in Spain per capita income is lower, competition from domestic
producers is stronger, and tariffs are high, so we licensed a
Barcelona-based company the rights to manufacture our product,”
says Peace Frogs president Catesby Jones.

Licensing offers a small business many advantages, such as
rapid entry into foreign markets and virtually no capital
requirements to establish manufacturing operations abroad.
Returns are usually realized more quickly than for manufacturing
The disadvantages of licensing are that control may be lost
over manufacturing and marketing, and more important, that the
licensee may become a competitor if too much knowledge and
know-how is transferred. Take care to protect trademarks and
intellectual property.
One way to help ensure that your intellectual property is
protected is to secure proper patent and trademark registration.
In the interim before your patent is filed, you may ask a
potential licensee to sign a confidentiality and non-disclosure
agreement barring the licensee from manufacturing the product
itself, or having it manufactured through third parties. Make
sure such agreements are not in violation of laws in the host
Patents should be filed with the appropriate foreign
government within one year of U.S. filing, in order to obtain
patent protection under the Paris Convention, the international
agreement on patents. Patent rules vary from country to country,
so it is important to consult a competent international patent
and trademark attorney.
Licensing to a foreign company the rights to your product
will require a carefully crafted licensing agreement. Consulting
an attorney is critical since rules on licensing also vary from
country to country. Be careful that the agreement does not
violate host country antitrust laws. Under the antitrust laws of
many countries, the licensee cannot set the price at which a
product will be re-sold by the licensor.

Foreign Manufacturing Joint Ventures
In contrast to licensing arrangements, foreign manufacturing
joint ventures allow for the U.S. company to have a stake and
management role in the foreign operation. Joint ventures require
more of a direct investment than licensing and require training,
management assistance and technology transfer.
Joint ventures can be equity or non-equity partnerships.
Equity joint ventures are contractual arrangements with equal
partners. Non-equity ventures involve the host country partner
in the arrangement with a greater percentage. In some countries,
a joint venture is the only way for a foreign company to set up
operations. Laws often require that a certain percentage of
stock belong to a citizen of the host country.
Foreign manufacturing joint ventures are risky in that
geographical and cultural factors may interfere with the smooth
running of operations. You will have to deal with entirely new
management, located in a different country, whose first language
may not be English.
Despite the drawbacks, using a foreign partner can have many
benefits: the partner will have intimate knowledge of the target
market and may have business and political contacts to make
market entry easier.

Partner Selection Issues
Finding a suitable partner is critical to the success of any
licensing or manufacturing joint venture arrangement.However,
this can be a time consuming and difficult process without proper
assistance. Recognizing this fact, the United States government
has a special program to facilitate overseas partner selection.
The DOC Matchmaker Trade Delegations are an excellent way to
make joint venture and licensee contacts. Matchmakers provide
one-on-one pre-screened business appointments for U.S. companies
in a foreign country. One U.S. company which was particularly
successful as a result of a Matchmaker was Texas-based Made In

“As a result of a Matchmaker trade mission, I was able to
consummate a Finnish joint venture which resulted in $6 million
in sales,” says Jan Schwenk, a principal with Made in USA, a
software development company. Exports now account for 25 percent
of the company’s business.

A limited number of Matchmaker Trade Delegations are held
each year. For companies unable to take advantage of a
Matchmaker, you may consider the DOC’s “Gold Key Service.” For
U.S. firms planning to visit a country, US&FCS overseas staff
will assist in developing a market strategy, setting up
orientation briefings, making introductions to potential joint
venture partners, providing interpreters for meetings and helping
with follow-up planning. Fees vary from country to country.
The steps that can be involved in foreign partner selection
are as follows:
. Contact your local DOC office. Discuss your target
market and what kind of partner you are seeking. They can tell
you whether a Matchmaker program fitting your needs is scheduled.
If not, they will send your request to the appropriate Foreign
Commercial Service representative abroad.
. A list of potential partners will be forwarded to you.
Contact each one with letter of introduction.
. After responses from potential candidates are obtained,
conduct a financial and business reference check on the most
qualified candidates. If you are unable to do this in-house, use
a credit reporting firm.
. Make a trip abroad, either with a Matchmaker Trade
Delegation or individually, to meet with potential licensees or
joint venture partners.
. Having made your final selection, begin contract
negotiations with the assistance of legal counsel.

Foreign Investment Opportunities
Many companies find that, as a result of exporting
profitably and licensing or joint venturing the manufacture of
their products abroad, it becomes a more viable method of market
entry to set up off-shore production operations.

Having only exported since 1988, Z-International, a
Missouri-based label manufacturer, opened a plant in Germany in
1990. The plant now employs 12 people and invoiced over DM
4,000,000 in 1991. Company president Fritz Zschietzschmann said
that Z-International’s initial motivation in setting up the plant
was to reach the European market, but now he says, “The doors to
all of Eastern Europe will be open for business.”

Off-shore manufacturing requires greater investment than
licensing or joint venture manufacturing, but also affords the
greatest amount of control over operations.
Additional factors that may induce a company to set up
off-shore production include: high transportation costs,
prohibitive tariffs or duties on imports, lower production costs
and foreign government investment incentives, such as tax
If you are seriously considering setting up an off-shore
manufacturing plant, you will need to assess whether to acquire
an existing facility or to construct a new one. The key factors
in this decision-making process are the legal and tax
ramifications, where to set up operations, and how to finance the
foreign investment. An off-shore operation may offer certain tax
benefits and other inducements for your company to make an
investment in their country.

Legal and Tax Implications
Much of the decision-making surrounding joint venture or
off-shore manufacturing involves legal and tax issues. Some
countries actively encourage and promote foreign investment.
Countries receptive to, or in need of, foreign investment may
have relaxed laws on kinds and amounts of foreign investments
allowed and may even offer certain tax benefits.
U.S. and host country attorneys and accountants should be an
integral part of the team you assemble to assess whether and
where joint venture or off-shore manufacturing would be
profitable for your company.

Location, Partner Selection and Financial Assistance
Foreign investment requires a substantial commitment of time
and money and a certain amount of risk. Recognizing this fact,
the United States government created a separate,
business-oriented agency to support American investors entering
the international marketplace.

Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)
OPIC is the lead agency assisting U.S. businesses interested
in investment overseas.
OPIC programs are available if the project:
. is a new venture, or expansion of an existing business;
. is located in a developing country where OPIC operates
(OPIC operates in 140 countries);
. will assist in the socio-economic development of the
host country;
. is approved by the host government; and
. is consistent with the economic interests of the United
States and will not have a significant adverse effect on the
United States economy or United States employment.
If your potential overseas investment fits these criteria,
OPIC can be an extremely useful resource. OPIC offers a variety
of programs, including: financing and political risk insurance
to help protect your investment and several pre-investment

Pre-investment Assistance
OPIC sponsors investment missions to introduce U.S.
businesses to key foreign private sector leaders, government
officials and potential joint venture partners. Since its
inception in 1975, investment missions to 45 countries have been
SBA-guaranteed loans may be available to fund your company’s
participation in such missions.
In addition to pre-investment assistance, OPIC provides
financing to assist in the setup of overseas operations and risk
insurance to mitigate some of the problems associated with
investment in developing countries.

Direct loans are available to ventures sponsored by, or
significantly involving, U.S. small businesses or cooperatives.
OPIC loans range from $500,000 to $6 million. Loan guarantees
are also made to lending institutions in the range of $2 million
to $25 million, but can be as large as $50 million.
OPIC has also underwritten a number of geographic venture
funds, including the Africa Growth Fund, the East European
Environmental Fund and the Latin America Growth Fund. If your
project fits the criteria necessary to be eligible for access
these funds, you may consider applying to the specific fund for
financing assistance.

Private investors may be hesitant to undertake long-term
investments abroad, given the political uncertainties of many
developing nations. To alleviate these concerns, OPIC insures
U.S. investments against three major types of political risks:
inconvertibility, expropriation and political violence, including
civil strife.

Foreign Governments
Foreign governments, particularly in developing countries,
often sponsor special agencies to aid and facilitate foreign
direct investment. Some examples include the Mexican Investment
Board (MIB), the Portuguese Trade Commission and the Bahrain
Marketing and Promotions Office. These foreign investment
promotion agencies can provide detailed market information, joint
venture leads and make contacts with key officials. They often
maintain offices in the United States.
Some countries may also have special funds or financing
arrangements to spur foreign investment in particular sectors or
geographical areas. Foreign investment promotion agencies can
lead you to these sources. Contact the appropriate foreign
embassy in the United States for the name of the agency which can
assist you.


In Chapter 3, we discussed methods of market entry with an
emphasis on exporting. In this concluding chapter, we focussed
on licensing, joint venture manufacturing and off-shore
production as options to be considered along with, or in addition
to, exporting.
How you decide to enter overseas markets will depend on a
variety of factors unique to your own small business. Going
global can be a challenging experience for a small business, but
the rewards can be substantial. As Roger Teigen, 1991 SBA
Oklahoma Exporter of the Year, put it:

“There is a certain greater adulation in winning when we win
in the export market rather than when we win in the U.S. market .
. . it is exciting, it is exhilarating.”

Let this optimism and enthusiasm be your guide as you go
global. The U.S. Small Business Administration, as well as
numerous other government agencies at the state and federal
level, support and encourage your entry into the international
arena. There are a multitude of programs and a worldwide staff
to assist you.


The Exporter’s Directory

Section 1

U.S. Small Business Administration

Smaller firms seeking to participate in the international
realm are faced with challenges such as finding overseas markets,
dealing with the initial complexities of exporting and financing
export sales. The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA)
offers aid to current and potential small or minority exporters
through two major programs: 1) business development assistance
and 2) financial assistance. These programs are directed by the
SBA’s Office of International Trade in Washington, DC, and
administered through the SBA’s network of field offices around
the country.

Office of International Trade
U.S. Small Business Administration
409 Third Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20416
Phone: 202/205-6720
FAX: 202/205-7272

U.S. Small Business Administration
2121 Eighth Avenue North, Suite 200
Birmingham, AL 35203-2398
Phone: 205/731-1338
FAX: 205/731-1404

U.S. Small Business Administration
222 West Eighth Avenue, Suite 67
Anchorage, AK 99513-7559
Phone: 907/271-4838
FAX: 907/271-4545

U.S. Small Business Administration
2828 North Central Avenue, Suite 800
Phoenix, AZ 85004-1025
Phone: 602/640-2315
FAX: 602/640-2360

U.S. Small Business Administration
300 West Congress Street, Room 7-H
Tucson, AZ 85701-1319
Phone: 602/670-4739
FAX: 602/670-4763

U.S. Small Business Administration
2120 Riverfront Drive, Suite 100
Little Rock, AR 72202
Phone: 501/324-5278
FAX: 501/324-5199

U.S. Small Business Administration
71 Stevenson Street
San Francisco CA 94105-2939
Phone: 415/744-6432
FAX: 415/744-6435

U.S. Small Business Administration
2719 North Air Fresno Drive
Suite 107
Fresno, CA 93727-1547
Phone: 209/487-5605
FAX: 209/487-5636

U.S. Small Business Administration
330 North Brand Boulevard, Suite 1200
Glendale, CA 91203-2304
Phone: 818/552-3210
FAX: 818/

U.S. Small Business Administration
660 J Street, Suite 215
Sacramento, CA 95814-2413
Phone: 916/551-1440
FAX: 916/551-1439

U.S. Small Business Administration
880 Front Street, #4-S-29
San Diego, CA 92188-0270
Phone: 619/557-7269
FAX: 619/557-5894

U.S. Small Business Administration
211 Main Street, Fourth Floor
San Francisco, CA 94105-1988
Phone: 415/744-6771
FAX: 415/744-6812

U.S. Small Business Administration
901 West Civic Center Drive, Suite 160
Santa Ana, CA 92703-2352
Phone: 714/836-2494
FAX: 714/836-2528

U.S. Small Business Administration
6477 Telephone Road, Suite 10
Ventura, CA 93003-4459
Phone: 805/642-1866
FAX: 805/642-9638

U.S. Small Business Administration
633 – 17th Street
7th Floor North
Denver, CO 80202-2395
Phone: 303/294-7072
FAX: 303/294-7153

U.S. Small Business Administration
721 19th Street, Fourth Floor
Denver, CO 80202-2599
Phone: 303/844-3984
FAX: 303/844-6539

U.S. Small Business Administration
330 Main Street, Second Floor
Hartford, CT 06106
Phone: 203/240-4700
FAX: 203/240-4659

U.S. Small Business Administration
920 North King Street, Suite 412
Wilmington, DE 19801
Phone: 302/573-6295
FAX: 302/573-6060

U.S. Small Business Administration
1110 Vermont Avenue, N.W.,
Suite 900
P.O. Box 34500
Washington, D.C. 20005
Phone: 202/606-4000
FAX: 202/606-4225

U.S. Small Business Administration
1320 South Dixie Highway, Suite 501
Coral Gables, FL 33146
Phone: 305/536-5521
FAX: 305/536-5058

U.S. Small Business Administration
7825 Baymeadows Way, Suite 100B
Jacksonville, FL 32256-7504
Phone: 904/443-1910
FAX: 904/443-1980

U.S. Small Business Administration
501 East Polk Street, Suite 104
Tampa, FL 33602-3945
Phone: 813/228-2594
FAX: 813/228-2111

U.S. Small Business Administration
1375 Peachtree Street, N.E., Fifth Floor
Atlanta, GA 30367-8102
Phone: 404/347-2797
FAX: 404/347-2355

U.S. Small Business Administration
1720 Peachtree Road N.W., Suite 600
Atlanta, GA 30309
Phone: 404/347-2441
FAX: 404/347-4745

U.S. Small Business Administration
52 North Main Street, Room 225
Statesboro, GA 30458
Phone: 912/489-8719
FAX: 912/233-0712

U.S. Small Business Administration
238 Archbishop F.C. Flores Street, Room 508
Agana, GU 96910
Phone: 671/472-7277
FAX: 200/550-7365

U.S. Small Business Administration
300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Room 2213
P.O. Box 50207 Honolulu, HI 96850
Phone: 808/541-2973
FAX: 808/541-2976

U.S. Small Business Administration
1020 Main Street, Suite 290
Boise, ID 83702
Phone: 208/334-1782
FAX: 208/334-9353

U.S. Small Business Administration
300 South Riverside Plaza, Suite 1975
Chicago, IL 60606-6617
Phone: 312/353-5000
FAX: 312/353-3426

U.S. Small Business Administration
500 West Madison, Suite 1250
Chicago, IL 60661
Phone: 312/353-5429
FAX: 312/886-5108

U.S. Small Business Administration
511 West Capitol Street, Third Floor
Springfield, IL 62701
Phone: 217/492-4232
FAX: 217/492-4867

U.S. Small Business Administration
429 North Pennsylvania Street, Room 100
Indianapolis, IN 46204-1873
Phone: 317/226-7269
FAX: 317/226-7259

U.S. Small Business Administration
373 Collins Road, N.E., Room 100
Cedar Rapids, IA 52402-3147
Phone: 319/393-2571
FAX: 319/393-7585

U.S. Small Business Administration
210 Walnut Street, Suite 749
Des Moines, IA 50309
Phone: 515/284-4026
FAX: 515/284-4572

U.S. Small Business Administration
100 East English Street, Suite 510
Wichita, KS 67202
Phone: 316/269-6273
FAX: 316/269-6499

U.S. Small Business Administration
600 Martin Luther King Jr. Place, Room 188
Louisville, KY 40202
Phone: 502/582-5971
FAX: 502/582-5009

U.S. Small Business Administration
1661 Canal Street, Suite 2000
New Orleans, LA 70112
Phone: 504/589-6685
FAX: 504/589-2339

U.S. Small Business Administration
500 Fannin Street, Room 8A-08
Shreveport, LA 75670
Phone: 903/935-5257
FAX: 903/935-5258

U.S. Small Business Administration
40 Western Avenue, Room 512
Augusta, ME 04330
Phone: 207/622-8378
FAX: 207/622-8277

U.S. Small Business Administration
10 South Howard Street, Room 608
Baltimore, MD 21202
Phone: 410/962-2235
FAX: 410/962-1805

U.S. Small Business Administration
155 Federal Street, Ninth Floor
Boston, MA 02110
Phone: 617/451-2023
FAX: 617/565-8695

U.S. Small Business Administration
10 Causeway Street, Room 265
Boston, MA 02222-1093
Phone: 617/565-5590
FAX: 617/565-5598

U.S. Small Business Administration
1550 Main Street, Room 212
Springfield, MA 01103
Phone: 413/785-0268
FAX: 413/785-0267

U.S. Small Business Administration
477 Michigan Avenue, Room 515
Detroit, MI 48226
Phone: 313/226-6075
FAX: 313/226-4769

U.S. Small Business Administration
300 South Front Street
Marquette, MI 49855
Phone: 906/225-1108
FAX: 906/225-1109

U.S. Small Business Administration
100 North Sixth Street, Suite 610-C
Minneapolis, MN 55403
Phone: 612/370-2343
FAX: 612/370-2303

U.S. Small Business Administration
One Hancock Plaza, Suite 1001
Gulfport, MS 39501-7758
Phone: 601/863-4449
FAX: 601/863-0179

U.S. Small Business Administration
101 West Capital Street, Suite 400
Jackson, MS 39201
Phone: 601/965-4384
FAX: 601/965-4294

U.S. Small Business Administration
911 Walnut Street, 13th Floor
Kansas City, MO 64106
Phone: 816/426-7762
FAX: 816/426-5559

U.S. Small Business Administration
Lucas Place
323 West Eighth Street, Suite 501
Kansas City, MO 64105
Phone: 816/374-5868
FAX: 816/374-6759

U.S. Small Business Administration
815 Olive Street, Room 242
St. Louis, MO 63101
Phone: 314/539-6600
FAX: 314/539-3785

U.S. Small Business Administration
620 South Glenstone, Suite 110
Springfield, MO 65802
Phone: 417/864-7670
FAX: 417/864-4108

U.S. Small Business Administration
301 South Park, Room 528, Drawer 10054
Helena, MT 59626
Phone: 406/449-5381
FAX: 406/449-5474

U.S. Small Business Administration
11145 Mill Valley Road
Omaha, NE 68154
Phone: 402/221-3604
FAX: 402/221-3680

U.S. Small Business Administration
301 East Stewart Street, Room 301
Las Vegas, NV 89125-2527
Phone: 702/388-6611
FAX: 702/388-6469

U.S. Small Business Administration
50 South Virginia Street, Room 238
Reno, NV 89505-3216
Phone: 702/784-5268
FAX: 702/784-5069

U.S. Small Business Administration
143 North Main Street, Suite 202
Concord, NH 03301-1257
Phone: 603/225-1400
FAX: 603/225-1409

U.S. Small Business Administration
Military Park Building, Fourth Floor
60 Park Place
Newark, NJ 07102
Phone: 201/645-2434
FAX: 210/645-6265

U.S. Small Business Administration
2600 Mt. Ephrain Avenue
Camden, NJ 08104
Phone: 609/757-5183
FAX: 609/757-5335

U.S. Small Business Administration
625 Silver Avenue, S.W., Third Floor
Albuquerque, NM 87102
Phone: 505/766-1870
FAX: 505/766-1057

U.S. Small Business Administration
26 Federal Plaza, Room 31-08
New York, NY 10278
Phone: 212/264-1450
FAX: 212/264-0900

U.S. Small Business Administration
Clinton and Pearl
Albany, NY 12207
Phone: 518/472-6300
FAX: 518/472-7138

U.S. Small Business Administration
111 West Huron Street, Suite 1311
Buffalo, NY 14202
Phone: 716/846-4301
FAX: 716/846-4418

U.S. Small Business Administration
333 East Water Street
Elmira, NY 14901
Phone: 607/734-8130
FAX: 607/734-4656

U.S. Small Business Administration
35 Pinelawn Road, Room 102E
Melville, NY 11747
Phone: 516/454-0750
FAX: 516/454-0769

U.S. Small Business Administration
100 State Street, Room 410
Rochester, NY 14614
Phone: 716/263-6700
FAX: 716/263-3146

U.S. Small Business Administration
100 South Clinton Street, Room 1071
Syracuse, NY 13260
Phone: 315/423-5383
FAX: 315/423-5370

U.S. Small Business Administration
200 North College Street, Suite A2015
Charlotte, NC 28202-2137
Phone: 704/344-6587
FAX: 704/344-6769

U.S. Small Business Administration
657 Second Avenue North, Room 218
P.O. Box 3086
Fargo, ND 58108
Phone: 701/239-5131
FAX: 701/239-5645

U.S. Small Business Administration
Federal Building, Suite 850
525 Vine Street
Cincinnati, OH 45202
Phone: 513/684-2814
FAX: 513/684-3251

U.S. Small Business Administration
1111 Superior Avenue, Suite 630
Cleveland, OH 44114-2507
Phone: 216/522-8236
FAX: 216/522-2038

U.S. Small Business Administration
2 Nationwide Plaza, Suite 1400
Columbus, OH 43215-2542
Phone: 614/469-6860
FAX: 614/469-2391

U.S. Small Business Administration
200 Northwest Fifth Street, Suite 670
Oklahoma City, OK 73102
Phone: 405/231-4301
FAX: 405/231-4876

U.S. Small Business Administration
222 S.W. Columbia Street, Suite 500
Portland, OR 97201-6605
Phone: 503/326-2682
FAX: 503/326-2808

U.S. Small Business Administration
475 Allendale Road, Suite 201
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone: 215/962-3700
FAX: 215/962-3743

U.S. Small Business Administration
100 Chesnut Street, Room 309
Harrisburg, PA 17101
Phone: 717/782-3840
FAX: 717/782-4839

U.S. Small Business Administration
960 Penn Avenue, Fifth Floor
Pittsburgh, PA 15222
Phone: 412/644-2780
FAX: 412/644-5446

U.S. Small Business Administration
20 North Pennsylvania Avenue, Room 2327
Wilkes-Barre, PA 18702
Phone: 717/826-6497
FAX: 717/826-6287

U.S. Small Business Administration
Carlos Chardon Avenue, Room 691
Hato Rey, PR 00918
Phone: 809/766-5572
FAX: 809/766-5309

U.S. Small Business Administration
380 Westminister Mall, Fifth Floor
Providence, RI 02903
Phone: 401/528-4561
FAX: 401/528-4539

U.S. Small Business Administration
1835 Assembly Street, Room 358
P.O. Box 2786
Columbia, SC 29201
Phone: 803/765-5298
FAX: 803/765-5962

U.S. Small Business Administration
101 Main Avenue, Suite 101
Sioux Falls, SD 57102
Phone: 605/330-4231
FAX: 605/330-4215

U.S. Small Business Administration
50 Vantage Way, Suite 201
Nashville, TN 37228-1504
Phone: 615/736-5039
FAX: 615/736-7232

U.S. Small Business Administration
8625 King George Drive, Building C
Dallas, TX 75235-3391
Phone: 214/767-7659
FAX: 214/767-7870

U.S. Small Business Administration
300 East Eighth Street, Room 520
Austin, TX 78701
Phone: 512/482-5288
FAX: 512/482-5290

U.S. Small Business Administration
Wilson Tower
606 North Carancahus, Suite 1200
Corpus Christi, TX 78476
Phone: 512/888-3331
FAX: 512/888-3418

U.S. Small Business Administration
10737 Gateway West, Suite 320
El Paso, TX 79935
Phone: 915/540-5676
FAX: 915/540-5636

U.S. Small Business Administration
4300 Amon Carter Boulevard, Suite 114
Ft. Worth, TX 76155
Phone: 817/885-6504
FAX: 817/885-6516

U.S. Small Business Administration
222 East Van Buren, Suite 500
Harlingen, TX 78550
Phone: 210/427-8533
FAX: 210/427-8537

U.S. Small Business Administration
9301 Southwest Freeway, Suite 550
Houston, TX 77074
Phone: 713/773-6500
FAX: 713/773-6550

U.S. Small Business Administration
1611 10th Street, Suite 200
Lubbock, TX 79401
Phone: 806/743-7462
FAX: 806/743-7487

U.S. Small Business Administration
505 East Travis, Room 103
Marshall, TX 75670
Phone: 903/935-5257
FAX: 903/935-5258

U.S. Small Business Administration
7400 Blanco Road, Suite 200
San Antonio, TX 78216
Phone: 210/229-4501
FAX: 210/229-4556

U.S. Small Business Administration
125 South State Street, Room 2237
Salt Lake City, UT 84138-1195
Phone: 801/524-3215
FAX: 801/524-4160

U.S. Small Business Administration
87 State Street, Room 205
Montpelier, VT 05602
Phone: 802/828-4422
FAX: 802/828-4485

U.S. Small Business Administration
4200 United Shopping Plaza, Suite 7
St. Croix, VI 00820-4487
Phone: 809/778-5380
FAX: 809/778-1012

U.S. Small Business Administration
Federal Office Building, Room 210
Veterans Drive
St. Thomas, VI 00802
Phone: 809/774-8530
FAX: 809/774-2312

U.S. Small Business Administration
400 North Eighth Street, Room 3015
P.O. Box 10126
Richmond, VA 23240
Phone: 804/771-2400
FAX: 804/771-8018

U.S. Small Business Administration
2615 Fourth Avenue, Room 440
Seattle, WA 98121
Phone: 206/553-5676
FAX: 206/553-4155

U.S. Small Business Administration
915 Second Avenue, Room 1792
Seattle, WA 98174-1088
Phone: 206/220-6520
FAX: 206/220-6570

U.S. Small Business Administration
Farm Credit Building, 10th Floor, East
West 601 First Avenue
Spokane, WA 99204-0317
Phone: 509/353-2806
FAX: 509/353-2829

U.S. Small Business Administration
168 West Main St., Fifth Floor
Clarksburg, WV 26301
Phone: 304/623-5631
FAX: 304/623-0023

U.S. Small Business Administration
550 Eagan Street, Suite 309
Charleston, WV 25301
Phone: 304/347-5220
FAX: 304/347-5350

U.S. Small Business Administration
212 East Washington Avenue, Room 213
Madison, WI 53703
Phone: 608/264-5542
FAX: 608/264-5541

U.S. Small Business Administration
310 West Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 400
Milwaukee, WI 53203
Phone: 414/297-1231
FAX: 414/297-1377

U.S. Small Business Administration
100 East B Street, Room 4001
P.O. Box 2839
Casper, WY 82602-2839
Phone: 307/261-5761
FAX: 307/261-5499


The U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) encourages, serves and
promotes the nation’s international trade, economic growth and
technological advancement. Within DOC, the International Trade
Administration (ITA) promotes world trade and is the official
U.S. government organization that coordinates all issues
concerning trade development, international economic policy and
programs and trade administration.
ITA units include: 1) country experts, 2) industry experts
and 3) domestic and overseas commercial officers.

U.S. Department of Commerce
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W. Room 3850
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-2867
FAX: 202/482-5933


Office of Africa
U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 3317, HCH Building
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-2175

Office of the Near East
U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 2039, HCH Building
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-4441
FAX: 202/482-0778

Office of South Asia
U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 2031, HCH Building
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-2954
FAX: 202/482-3550

Office of Western Europe
U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 3043, HCH Building
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-5341
FAX: 202/482-2897

Office of European Community Affairs
U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 3036, HCH Building
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-5276
FAX: 202/482-2155

Office of Eastern Europe, Russia and Independent States
U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 3413, HCH Building
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-1104
FAX: 202/482-4505

Office of Latin America
U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 3025, HCH Building
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-2436
FAX: 202/482-4726

Latin America/Caribbean Business Development Center
Room 3203, HCH Building
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-0841
FAX: 202/482-5933

Office of Canada
U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 3033, HCH Building
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-3101
FAX: 202/482-3718

Office of Mexico
U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 3826, HCH Building
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-0300
FLASH FACTS: 202/482-4464
FAX: 202/482-5865

Office of China, Hong Kong and Mongolia
U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 2317, HCH Building
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-5527
FAX: 202/482-1576

Office of the Pacific Basin
U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 3820, HCH Building
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-4008
FAX: 202/482-4760

Deputy Assistant Secretary for Japan
U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 2318, HCH Building
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-4527
FAX: 202/482-0469

The Department of Commerce has established Regional Business
Centers to provide information on new opportunities for trade and
investment in various areas of the world.

Former Soviet Union
Business Information Service for the Newly Independent States
U.S. Department of Commerce, Room 7413
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-4655
FAX: 202/482-2293

Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe Business Information Center (EEBIC)
U.S. Department of Commerce, Room 7412
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-2645
FAX: 202/482-4473

Japan Export Information Center (JEIC)
U.S. Department of Commerce, Room 2318
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-2425
FAX: 202/482-0469

Latin America/Caribbean
Latin America & Caribbean Business Development Center
U.S. Department of Commerce, Room 1235
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-0841
FAX: 202/482-5364

European Community
Single Internal Market 1992 Information Service (SIMIS)
U.S. Department of Commerce, Room 3036
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-5276
FAX: 202/482-2155


Commerce Department Desk Officers are a source for
information on trade potential for U.S. products in specific
countries. Desk officers collect information on country’s
regulations, tariffs, business practices, economic and political
developments, market size and growth and trade data.

U.S. Department of Commerce
14th and Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230

Country Phone (202) Room

Afghanistan 482-2954 2029B
Albania 482-4915 3413
Algeria 482-1870 2039
Angola 482-4228 3021
Antigua and
Barbuda 482-2527 3021
Anguilla 482-2527 3021

Country Phone (202) Room

Argentina 482-1548 3021
Aruba 482-2527 3020
Armenia 482-2354 3318
Azerbaijan 482-2354 3318
Australia 482-3646 2308
Austria 482-2920 3039
Bahamas 482-2527 3021
Bahrain 482-5545 2039
Baltic States 482-3952 3318
Bangladesh 482-2954 2029B
Barbados 482-2527 3021
Belarus 482-2354 3318
Belgium 482-5401 3042
Belize 482-2527 3021
Benin 482-4228 3317
Bermuda 482-2527 3021
Bhutan 482-2954 2029B
Bolivia 482-1659 3029
Botswana 482-4228 3317
Brazil 482-3871 3017
Brunei 482-3875 2308
Bulgaria 482-4915 3413
Burkina Faso 482-4388 3317
Burma 482-3875 2308
Burundi 482-4388 3317
Cambodia 482-3875 2308
Cameroon 482-5149 3317
Canada 482-3101 3303
Cape Verde 482-4388 3317
Caymans 482-2527 3021
Central African
Republic 482-4388 3020
Chad 482-4385 3317
Chile 482-1495 3017
China 482-2462 2317
Colombia 482-1859 3025
Comoro Islands 482-4564 3317
Congo 482-5149 3317
Costa Rica 482-2527 3021
Cuba 482-2527 3021
Cyprus 482-3945 3044
Czechoslovakia 482-2645 3143
Denmark 482-3254 3413
Djibouti 482-4564 3317
Dominica 482-2527 3021
Republic 482-2527 3021
Ecuador 482-1659 3025
Egypt 482-4441 2039
El Salvador 482-2527 3020

Country Phone (202) Room

Guinea 482-4228 3317
Estonia 482-2354 3318
Ethiopia 482-4564 3317
Community 482-5278 3036
Finland 482-3254 3413
France 482-8008 3042
Gabon 482-5149 3317
Gambia 482-4388 3317
Georgia 482-2354 3318
Germany 482-2434 3409
Ghana 482-5149 3317
Greece 482-3945 3042
Grenada 482-2527 3021
Guadeloupe 482-2527 3021
Guatemala 482-2527 3021
Guinea 482-4388 3317
Guinea-Bissau 482-4388 3317
Guyana 482-2527 3021
Haiti 482-2527 3021
Honduras 482-2527 3020
Hong Kong 482-3832 2317
Hungary 482-2645 3413
Iceland 482-3254 3037
India 482-2954 2029
Indonesia 482-3875 2308
Iran 482-1870 2039
Iraq 482-4441 2039
Ireland 482-2177 3039
Israel 482-1870 2039
Italy 482-2177 3045
Ivory Coast 482-4388 3317
Jamaica 482-2527 3021
Japan 482-2425 2318
Jordan 482-1857 2039
Kazakhstan 482-2354 3318
Kenya 482-4564 3317
Korea 482-4957 2308
Kuwait 482-1860 2039
Kyrgyzstan 482-2354 3318
Laos 482-3875 2308
Lebanon 482-4441 2039
Lesotho 482-4220 3317
Liberia 482-4388 3317
Libya 482-5545 2039
Luxembourg 482-5401 3046
Macao 482-2462 2317
Madagascar 482-4504 3317
Malawi 482-4228 3317
Malaysia 482-3875 2308
Maldives 482-2954 2029B
Country Phone (202) Room

Mali 482-4388 3317
Malta 482-3748 3049
Martinique 482-2527 3021
Mauritania 482-4388 3317
Mauritius 482-4564 3317
Mexico 482-0300 3028
Moldova 482-2354 3318
Mongolia 482-2462 2317
Montserrat 482-2527 3314
Morocco 482-5545 2039
Mozambique 482-5148 3317
Namibia 482-4228 3317
Nepal 482-2954 2029B
Netherlands 482-5401 3039
Antilles 482-2527 3021
New Zealand 482-3647 2308
Nicaragua 482-2527 3021
Niger 482-4388 3317
Nigeria 482-4288 3317
Norway 482-5149 3037
Oman 482-1870 2039
Islands 482-3647 2308
Pakistan 482-2954 2029B
Panama 482-2527 3020
Paraguay 482-1548 3021
People’s Rep
of China 482-3583 2317
Peru 482-2521 2038
Philippines 482-3875 2308
Poland 482-2645 3413
Portugal 482-4508 3044
Puerto Rico 482-2527 3021
Qatar 482-1070 2039
Romania 482-2645 6043
Rwanda 482-4388 3317
Russia 482-2354 3318
SÉo TomÇ &
Pr°ncipe 482-4338 3317
Saudi Arabia 482-4652 2039
Senegal 482-4388 3317
Seychelles 482-4564 3317
Sierra Leone 482-4388 3317
Singapore 482-3875 2308
Somalia 482-4564 3317
South Africa 482-5498 3317
Spain 482-4508 3045
Sri Lanka 482-2954 2029B
St. Barthelemy 482-2527 3021
St. Kitts-
Nevis 482-2527 3021

Country Phone (202) Room

St. Lucia 482-2527 3021
St. Martin 482-2527 3021
St. Vincent-
Grenadines 482-2527 3021
Sudan 482-4564 3317
Suriname 482-2527 3021
Swaziland 482-5148 3317
Sweden 482-4414 3037
Switzerland 482-2920 3039
Syria 482-4441 2039
Taiwan 482-4957 2308
Tajikistan 482-2354 3318
Tanzania 482-4228 3317
Thailand 482-3875 2308
Togo 482-5149 3317
Trinidad &
Tobago 482-2527 3021
Tunisia 482-1860 2039
Turkey 482-5373 3045
Turks & Caicos
Islands 482-2527 3021
Turkmenistan 482-2354 3318
Uganda 482-4564 3317
Ukraine 482-2354 3318
United Arab
Emirates 482-5545 2039
United Kingdom 482-3748 3045
Uruguay 482-1495 3021
Uzbekistan 482-2354 3318
Venezuela 482-4303 3029
Vietnam 482-3875 2308
Virgin Islands
(UK) 482-2527 3021
Virgin Islands
(US) 482-2527 3021
Yemen, Rep. of 482-1870 2039
Yugoslavia 482-2615 3413
Zaire 482-5149 3317
Zambia 482-4228 3317
Zimbabwe 482-4228 3317


Trade Development Industry Officers work with businesses and
associations to identify trade opportunities and obstacles by
product or service, industry sector and market. They develop
export marketing plans and programs as well as conduct trade
missions, trade fairs, marketing seminars and business

Trade Development
U.S. Department of Commerce, Room 3832
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-1461
FAX: 202/482-5697


U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 2130
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-1872
FAX: 202/482-3383

U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 4043
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-0614
FAX: 202/482-5666

U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 1128A
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-5261
FAX: 202/482-4775

U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 3100
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-3737
FAX: 202/482-2331

In addition to the major industry sectors, cross-sectoral
units provide statistical data and analyses useful in export
development and coordinate Trade Development’s overall export
promotion efforts.

U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 2815
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-5145
FAX: 202/482-5697

U.S. Department of Commerce
Room 2001
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-4501
FAX: 202/482-5697


The US&FCS oversees 47 district offices and 21 branch
offices in cities throughout the United States. ITA trade
specialists can provide export counseling, export programs and
assistance through 51 District Export Councils nationwide
comprised of nearly 1,800 business and trade experts who
volunteer to help U.S. firms export.

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
2015 Second Avenue, North, Room 302
Birmingham, AL 35203
Phone: 205/731-1331
FAX: 205/731-0076

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
World Trade Center Alaska, Suite 319
4201 Tudor Center Drive
Anchorage, AK 99508-5916
Phone: 907/271-6237
FAX: 907/271-6242

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
230 North First Avenue, Room 3412
Phoenix, AZ 85025
Phone: 602/379-3285
FAX: 602/379-4324

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
425 West Capitol Avenue, Suite 700
Little Rock, AR 72201
Phone: 501/324-5794
FAX: 501/324-7380

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
11000 Wilshire Boulevard, Room 9200
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Phone: 310/575-7105
FAX: 310/575-7220

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
6363 Greenwich Drive, Suite 230
San Diego, CA 92122
Phone: 619/557-5395
FAX: 619/557-6176

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
250 Montgomery Street, 14th Floor
San Francisco, CA 94104
Phone: 415/705-2310
FAX: 415/705-2297

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
3330 Irvine Avenue, Suite 305
Newport Beach, CA 92660-3198
Phone: 714/660-1688
FAX: 714/660-8039

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
1625 Broadway, Suite 680
Denver, CO 80202
Phone: 303/844-3246
FAX: 303/844-5651

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
450 Main Street, Room 610 B
Hartford, CT 06103
Phone: 203/240-3530
FAX: 203/240-3473

(Delaware serviced by Philadelphia ITA office)
U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
475 Allendale Road, Suite 202
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone: 215/951-4980
FAX: 215/951-7959

(D.C. serviced by Gaithersburg, MD ITA office)
U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
c/o National Institute of Standards and Technology
Room A102, Building 411
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
Phone: 301/975-3904
FAX: 301/948-4360

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS Branch Office
107 West Gaines Street, Room 366G
Tallahassee, FL 32399-2000
Phone: 904/486-6469
FAX: 904/487-1407

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
224 Federal Building
51 SW First Avenue
Miami, FL 33130
Phone: 305/536-5268
FAX: 305/536-4765

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS Branch Office
128 North Osceola Avenue
Clearwater, FL 34617
Phone: 813/461-0011
FAX: 813/449-2889

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS Branch Office
200 East Robinson Street, Suite 695
Orlando, FL 32801
Phone: 407/648-6235
FAX: 407/648-6756

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
4360 Chamblee-Dunwoody Road
Suite 310
Atlanta, GA 30341
Phone: 404/452-9101
FAX: 404/452-9105

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
Room A-107120 Bernard Street
Savannah, GA 31401
Phone: 912/652-4204
FAX: 912/652-4241

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
4106 Federal Building
300 Ala Moana Boulevard
Honolulu, HI 96850
Phone: 808/541-1782
FAX: 808/541-3435

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
700 West State Street, Second Floor
Boise, ID 83720
Phone: 208/334-3857
FAX: 208/334-2787

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
55 East Monroe Street, Room 1406
Chicago, IL 60603
Phone: 312/353-4450
FAX: 312/886-8025

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
Illinois Institute of Technology
201 East Loop Drive
Wheaton, IL 60187
Phone: 312/353-4332
FAX: 312/353-4336

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
515 North Court Street
P.O. Box 1747
Rockford, IL 61110-C247
Phone: 815/987-8123
FAX: 815/987-8122

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
Penn Wood, Suite 106
11405 North Penn Street
Carmel, IN 46032
Phone: 317/582-2300
FAX: 317/582-2301

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
210 Walnut Street, Suite 817
Des Moines, IA 50309
Phone: 515/284-4222
FAX: 515/284-402

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
151 North Volutsia
Wichita, KS 67214-4695
Phone: 316/269-6160
FAX: 316/683-7326

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
601 West Broadway, Room 636B
Louisville, KY 40202
Phone: 502/582-5066
FAX: 502/582-6573

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
Two Canal Street
431 World Trade Center
New Orleans, LA 70130
Phone: 504/589-6546
FAX: 504/586-2337

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
77 Sewall Street
Augusta, ME 04330
Phone: 207/622-8249
FAX: 207/626-9156

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
431 U.S. Customhouse
40 South Gay Street
Baltimore, MD 21202
Phone: 410/962-3560
FAX: 410/962-7813

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
c/o National Institute of Standards and Technology
Room A102, Building 411
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
Phone: 301/975-3904
FAX: 301/948-4360

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
307 World Trade Center
Boston, MA 02210
Phone: 617/565-8563
FAX: 617/565-8530

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
1140 McNamara Building
477 Michigan Avenue
Detroit, MI 48226
Phone: 313/226-3650
FAX: 313/226-3657

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
300 Monroe N.W.
Grand Rapids, MI 49503
Phone: 616/456-2411
FAX: 616/456-2695

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
110 South Fourth Street, Suite 108
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone: 612/348-1638
FAX: 612/348-1650

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
201 W. Capitol Street, Suite 310
Jackson, MS 39201-2005
Phone: 601/965-4388
FAX: 601/965-5386

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
8182 Maryland Avenue, Suite 303
St. Louis, MO 63105
Phone: 314/425-3305
FAX: 314/425-3381

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
601 East 12th Street, Room 635
Kansas City, MO 64106
Phone: 816/426-3141
FAX: 816/426-3140

(Montana served by the Portland ITA Office)
U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
One World Trade Center, Suite 242
121 SW Salmon Street
Portland, OR 97204
Phone: 503/326-3001
FAX: 503/326-6351

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
11133 O Street
Omaha, NE 68137
Phone: 402/221-3664
FAX: 402/221-3668

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
1755 East Plumb Lane, #152
Reno, NV 89502
Phone: 702/784-5203
FAX: 702/784-5343

(N.H. serviced by the Boston ITA Office)
U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
307 World Trade Center
Boston, MA 02210
Phone: 617/565-8563
FAX: 617/565-8530

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
3131 Princeton Pike
Building #6, Suite 100
Trenton, NJ 08648
Phone: 609/989-2100
FAX: 609/989-2395

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
625 Silver Avenue SW, Third Floor
Albuquerque, NM 87102
Phone: 505/766-2070
FAX: 505/766-1057

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
26 Federal Plaza, Room 3718
New York, NY 10278
Phone: 212/264-0634
FAX: 212/264-1356

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
111 West Huron Street, Suite 1312
Buffalo, NY 14202
Phone: 716/846-4191
FAX: 716/846-5290

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
111 East Avenue, Suite 220
Rochester, NY 14604
Phone: 716/263-6480
FAX: 716/325-6505

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
400 West Market Street
Greensboro, NC 27401
Phone: 919/333-5345
FAX: 919/333-5158

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
9504 Federal Building
550 Main Street
Cincinnati, OH 45202
Phone: 513/684-2944
FAX: 513/684-3200

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
668 Euclid Avenue, Room 600
Cleveland, OH 44114
Phone: 216/522-4750
FAX: 216/522-2235

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
6601 Broadway Extension
Oklahoma City, OK 73116
Phone: 405/231-5302
FAX: 405/841-5245

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
440 South Houston Street, Room 505
Tulsa, OK 74127
Phone: 918/581-765O
FAX: 918/581-2844

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
One World Trade Center, Suite 242
121 SW Salmon Street
Portland, OR 97204
Phone: 503/326-3001
FAX: 503/326-6351

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
475 Allendale Road, Suite 202
King of Prussia, PA 19406
Phone: 215/962-4980
FAX: 215/951-7959

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
1000 Liberty Avenue, Suite 2002
Pittsburgh, PA 15222-4194
Phone: 412/644-2850
FAX: 412/644-4875

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
Room G-55, Federal Building
(Hato Rey) San Juan, PR 00918
Phone: 809/766-5555
FAX: 809/766-5692

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
7 Jackson Walkway
Providence, RI 02903
Phone: 401/528-5104
FAX: 401/528-5067

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
1835 Assembly Street, Suite 172
Columbia, SC 29201
Phone: 803/765-5345
FAX: 803/253-3614

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
9 Liberty Street, Room 128
Charleston, SC 29424
Phone: 803/765-5345
FAX: 803/253-3614

(S.D. serviced by the Omaha District Office)
U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
11133 O Street
Omaha, NE 68137
Phone: 402/221-3664
FAX: 402/221-3668

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
404 Jason Robertson Parkway, Suite 1114
Nashville, TN 37219
Phone: 615/736-5161
FAX: 615/736-2454

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
22 North Front Street, Suite 200
Memphis, TN 38103
Phone: 901/544-4137
FAX: 901/575-3510

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
301 East Church Avenue
Knoxville, TN 37915
Phone: 615/545-4637

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
P.O. Box 12728, Capitol Station
Austin, TX 78711
Phone: 512/472-5059
FAX: 512/320-9424

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
1100 Commerce Street, Room 7A5
Dallas, TX 75258
Phone: 214/767-0542
FAX: 214/767-8240

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
2625 Federal Building
515 Rusk Street
Houston, TX 77002
Phone: 713/229-2578
FAX: 713/229-2203

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
324 South State Street, Suite 105
Salt Lake City, UT 84111
Phone: 801/524-5116
FAX: 801/524-5886

(Vermont served by the Boston ITA Office)
U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
307 World Trade Center
Boston, MA 02210
Phone: 617/565-8563
FAX: 617/565-8530

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
400 North Eighth Street, Suite 8010
Richmond, VA 23240
Phone: 804/771-2246
FAX: 804/771-2390

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
3131 Elliott Avenue, Suite 290
Seattle, WA 98121
Phone: 206/553-5615
FAX: 206/553-7253

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
405 Capitol Street, Suite 807
Charleston, WV 25301
Phone: 304/347-5123
FAX: 304/347-5408

U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
517 East Wisconsin Avenue, Room 596
Milwaukee, WI 53202
Phone: 414/297-3473
FAX: 414/297-3470

(Wyoming serviced by the Denver ITA Office)
U.S. Department of Commerce
ITA/US&FCS District Office
1625 Broadway, Suite 680
Denver, CO 80202
Phone: 303/844-3246
FAX: 303/844-5651


The BXA counsels U.S. firms attempting to export controlled
products, issues export licenses and holds seminars on export

U.S. Department of Commerce
Bureau of Export Administration
Office of Export Licensing
Room 1099, HCH Building
14th & Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-8536
FAX: 202/482-3322

BXA services include:

Export License Application and Information Network (ELAIN)
Phone: 202/482-4811

System for Tracking Export License Application (STELA)
Phone: 202/482-2752

Export Licensing Voice Information System (ELVIS)
Phone: 202/482-4811

Export Seminars
Phone: 202/482-6031


Provides information about foreign standards and
certification requirements. Maintains a GATT Hotline which
reports on the latest technical notifications of proposed foreign
regulations that may affect trade.

U.S. Department of Commerce
Technology Administration
Physics Building, Room A363
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
Phone: 301/975-4040
FAX: 301/963-2871
GATT Hotline: 301/975-4041

Section 2




Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) provide a wide
range of business assistance including export counseling. There
are over 900 SBDCs throughout the United States. Some SBDCs have
designated International Trade Centers; all SBDCs provide trade


University of Alabama in Birmingham
1717 Eleventh Avenue South, Suite 419
Birmingham, AL 35294-4410
Phone: 205/934-7260
FAX: 205/934-7645

Alabama International Trade Center
University of Alabama
400 North Martha Parham
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0396
Phone: 205/348-7621
FAX: 205/348-6974

California Department of Commerce
801 K Street, Suite 1700
Sacramento, CA 95814
Phone: 916/324-5068
FAX: 916/322-5084

Export Small Business Development Center of Southern California
110 East Ninth Street, Suite A-761
Los Angeles, CA 90079
Phone: 213/892-1111
FAX: 213/892-8232

Trade Expansion Center
University of West Florida
Building 79, Room 196
Pensacola, FL 32514
Phone: 904/474-3016
FAX: 904/474-2030

Florida Atlantic University
P.O. Box 3091
Boca Raton, FL 33431
Phone: 407/367-2273/2271
FAX: 407/367-2272

University of Georgia
Chicopee Complex
1180 East Broad Street
Athens, GA 30602
Phone: 706/542-5760
FAX: 706/542-6776

Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs
620 East Adams Street
Springfield, IL 62701
Phone: 217/524-5856
FAX: 217/785-6328

College of Dupage
22nd & Lambert Road
Glen Ellyn, IL 60137
Phone: 708/858-2800, Ext. 3052
FAX: 708/790-1179

Bradley University
141 North Jobst Hall, First Floor
Peoria, IL 61625
Phone: 309/677-3075
FAX: 309/677-3386

Small Business Development Center
Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville
Campus Box 1107
Edwardsville, IL 62026
Phone: 618/692-2929
FAX: 618/692-2647

Northeast Louisiana University
College of Business Administration
700 University Avenue
Monroe, LA 71209
Phone: 318/342-5506
FAX: 318/342-5510

University of New Orleans
368 Business Administration Bldg.
New Orleans, LA 70148
Phone: 504/286-6978
FAX: 504/286-7197

Wayne State University
2727 Second Avenue
Detroit, MI 48201
Phone: 313/577-4848
FAX: 313/577-4222

Center for International Business Development
Michigan State University
6 Kellogg Center
East Lansing, MI 48824-1022
Phone: 517/353-4336 or 1-800-852-5727
FAX: 517/336-1009

University of Mississippi
Old Chemistry Building, Suite 216
University, MS 38677
Phone: 601/232-5001
FAX: 601/232-5650

International Trade Center
Hinds Community College
P.O. Box 1170
Raymond, MS 39154
Phone: 601/857-3536
FAX: 601/857-3535

Lane Community College
99 West 10th Avenue, Suite 216
Eugene, OR 97401
Phone: 503/726-2250
FAX: 503/345-6006

Portland Community College SBDC
121 SW Salmon Street, Suite 210
Portland, OR 97204
Phone: 503/274-7482
FAX: 503/228-6350

University of Pennsylvania
The Wharton School
444 Vance Hall
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Phone: 215/898-1219
FAX: 215/573-2135

Wharton Export Network
3733 Spruce Street, Suite 413
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Phone: 215/898-4861
FAX: 215/898-1299

Lehigh Small Business Development Center
The Rauzh Business Center, No. 37
Bethlehem, PA 18015
Phone: 215/758-3980
FAX: 215/758-5205

Kutztown University
Small Business Development Center
2986 North Second Street
Harrisburg, PA 17110
Phone: 717/233-3120
FAX: 717/233-3181

Small Business Development Center
Memphis State University
Memphis, TN 38152
Phone: 901/678-2500
FAX: 901/678-4072

North Texas Small Business Development Center
Dallas Community College
1402 Corinth
Dallas, TX 75215
Phone: 214/565-5833
FAX: 214/565-5813

Small Business Development Center
P.O. Box 58299
2050 Stemmons Freeway
World Trade Center, Suite 150
Dallas, TX 75258
Phone: 214/747-1300, Code 68
FAX: 214/748-5774

University of Houston
Small Business Development Center
601 Jefferson Street, Suite 2330
Houston, TX 77002
Phone: 713/752-8404
FAX: 713/752-8484

South Texas Border
Small Business Development Center
University of Texas at San Antonio
801 South Bowie
San Antonio, TX 78205
Phone: 512/224-0794
FAX: 512/222-9834

Washington State University
College of Business and Economics
245 Todd Hall
Pullman, WA 99164-4727
Phone: 509/335-1576
FAX: 509/335-0949

International Trade Institute
North Seattle Community College
9600 College Way North
Seattle, WA 98103
Phone: 206/527-3732
FAX: 206/527-3734


Arizona Lead Small Business Development Center
2411 West 14th Street
Tempe, AZ 85281
Phone: 602/731-8720
FAX: 602/731-8729

Colorado Office of Business Development
1625 Broadway, Suite 1710
Denver, CO 80202
Phone: 303/892-3809
FAX: 303/892-3848

Front Range Community College
Small Business Development Center
3645 West 112th Avenue
Westminster, CO 80030
Phone: 303/460-1032
FAX: 303/466-1623

Boise State University
College of Business
1910 University Drive
Boise, ID 83725
Phone: 208/385-1640
FAX: 208/385-3877

International Trade Coordinator
Lewis Clark State College
500 Eighth Avenue
Lewiston, ID 83501
Phone: 208/799-2465
FAX: 208/799-2831

Indiana Economic Development Council
One North Capital, Suite 420
Indianapolis, IN 46204-2248
Phone: 317/264-6871
FAX: 317/264-3102

Iowa State University
137 Lynn Avenue
Ames, IA 50010
Phone: 515/292-6351
FAX: 515/292-0020

Northeast Iowa Small Business Development Center
Dubuque Area Chamber of Commerce
770 Town Clock Plaza
Dubuque, IA 52001
Phone: 319/588-3350
FAX: 319/557-1591

Eastern Iowa Small Business Development Center
304 West Second Avenue
Davenport, IA 52801
Phone: 319/322-4499
FAX: 319/322-3956

University of Massachusetts
School of Management, Room 205
Amherst, MA 01003
Phone: 413/545-6301
FAX: 413/545-1273

University of Missouri, Columbia
300 University Place
Columbia, MO 65211
Phone: 314/882-0344
FAX: 314/884-4297

Central Missouri State University
Small Business Development Center
Grinstead 75
Warrensburg, MO 64093-5087
Phone: 816/543-4402
FAX: 816/543-8159

Missouri Southern State College
Small Business Development Center
107 Matthews Hall
3950 Newman Road
Joplin, MO 64801
Phone: 417/625-9313
FAX: 417/625-9782

Southwest Missouri State University
Small Business Development Center
901 South National
Box 88
Springfield, MO 65804
Phone: 417/836-5685
FAX: 417/836-6337

Montana Department of Commerce
1424 Ninth Avenue
Helena, MT 59620
Phone: 406/444-4780
FAX: 406/444-2808

University of Nebraska, Omaha
60th & Dodge Streets, CBA
Room 407
Omaha, NE 68182
Phone: 402/554-2521
FAX: 402/554-2747

University of Nebraska, Omaha
1313 Farnam, Room 132
Omaha, NE 68182
Phone: 402/595-2381
FAX: 402/595-2388

University of Nevada SBDC
Mail Stop 032
Reno, NV 89557-0100
Phone: 702/784-1717
FAX: 702/784-4337

University of New Hampshire
108 McConnell Hall
Durham, NH 03824
Phone: 603/862-2200
FAX: 603/862-4468

International Resource Center
601 Spaulding Turnpike, Suite 29
Portsmouth, NH 03801-2833
Phone: 603/334-6074
FAX: 603/334-6110

Rutgers University
Ackerson Hall, Third Floor
180 University Avenue
Newark, NJ 07102
Phone: 201/648-5950
FAX: 201/648-1110

State University of New York
SUNY Plaza, S-523
Albany, NY 12246
Phone: 518/443-5398
FAX: 518/465-4992

International Trade Coordinator
Small Business Development Center
State University College, Buffalo
1300 Elmwood Avenue
Buffalo, NY 14222
Phone: 716/878-4030
FAX: 716/878-4067

Small Business Development Center
Rockland Community College at Suffern
145 College Road
Suffern, NY 10901
Phone: 914/356-0370
FAX: 914/356-0381

University of North Carolina
4509 Creedmoor Road, Suite 201
Raleigh, NC 27612
Phone: 919/571-4154
FAX: 919/571-4161

Ohio Department of Development
77 South High Street
Columbus, OH 43266-1001
Phone: 614/466-2711
FAX: 614/466-0829

Southeast Ohio Small Business Development Center
Ohio University at Athens
Innovation Center
One President Street, Suite 014
Athens, OH 45701
Phone: 614/593-1797
FAX: 614/593-1795

Toledo Small Business Development Center
218 North Huron Street
Toledo, OH 43604
Phone: 419/243-8191
FAX: 419/241-8302

Lake County Small Business Development Center
Lake County Economic Development Center
Lakeland Community College
Mentor, OH 44080
Phone: 216/951-1290
FAX: 216/953-4413

Marietta College SBDC
Marietta College
Marietta, OH 45750
Phone: 614/374-4649
FAX: 614/374-7585

Bryant College
1150 Douglas Pike
Smithfield, RI 02917
Phone: 401/232-6111
FAX: 401/232-6416

University of South Carolina
College of Business Administration
1710 College Street
Columbia, SC 29208
Phone: 803/777-4907
FAX: 803/777-4403

Virginia Department of Economic Development
P.O. Box 798
Richmond, VA 23206-0798
Phone: 804/371-8253
FAX: 804/371-8185

Northern Virginia
Small Business Development Center
4260 Chainbridge Road, Suite B-1
Fairfax, VA 22030
Phone: 703/993-2131
FAX: 703/993-2126

Longwood Small Business Development Center
Longwood College
515 Main Street
Farmville, VA 23901
Phone: 804/395-2086
FAX: 804/395-2359

James Madison University
Small Business Development Center
College of Business
Zane Showker Hall, Room 523
Harrisonburg, VA 22807
Phone: 703/568-3227
FAX: 703/568-3299

Small Business Development Center of Hampton Roads
420 Bank Street, P.O. Box 327
Norfolk, VA 23501
Phone: 804/622-6414 or 804/825-2957
FAX: 804/622-5563 or 804/825-2960

Howard University
Small Business Development Center
2600 Sixth Street, N.W.
Room 128
Washington, D.C. 20059
Phone: 202/806-1550
FAX: 202/806-1777U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE Assisting U.S.
businesses is a major responsibility of the U.S. Department of
State, including its more than 250 diplomatic and consular
establishments in more than 140 foreign countries. State
Department diplomatic and consular personnel abroad and domestic
State Department personnel offer the small business or
new-to-market exporter a variety of services including
professional guidance and advice on doing business abroad,
assistance in developing foreign contacts and, in the event of
investment disputes with foreign governments, help in reaching
amicable settlement.
This section lists State Department Country Desk Officers
and Passport Offices throughout the United States.


Country Phone (202)

Afghanistan 647-9552
Albania 647-3187
Algeria 647-4680
Andorra 647-1412
Angola 647-8252
Antigua and Barbuda 647-2621
Argentina 647-2401
Armenia 647-8671
Australia 647-9691
Austria 647-1484
Azerbaijan 647-8671
Bahamas 647-2621
Bahrain 647-6572
Baltic States 647-3187
Bangladesh 647-9552
Barbados 647-2621
Belarus 647-6764
Belgium 647-6071
Belize 647-4980
Belorus 647-8671
Benin 647-2865
Bermuda 647-8027
Bhutan 647-2141
Bolivia 647-3076
Botswana 647-8252
Brazil 647-9407
Brunei 647-3276
Bulgaria 647-3188
Burkina Faso 647-3066
Burma 647-7108
Burundi 647-3139
Cambodia 647-3133
Cameroon 647-1707
Canada 647-2170
Cape Verde 647-3391
Centr. African Repub. 647-3139
Country Phone (202)

Chad 647-1707
Chile 647-2407
China 647-6300
Colombia 647-3023
Comoros 647-5684
Congo 647-3139
Cook Islands 647-3546
Costa Rica 647-3381
Cuba 647-9272
Cyprus 647-6113
Czechoslovakia 647-3298
Denmark 647-5669
Diego Garcia 647-8913
Djibouti 647-8852
Dominica 647-2621
Dominican Republic 647-2620
Ecuador 647-3338
Egypt 647-1228
El Salvador 647-4961
Equatorial Guinea 647-3139
Estonia 647-3188
Ethiopia 647-8852
European Community 647-1708
Finland 647-6071
France 647-2663
Gabon 647-1707
Gambia 647-3395
Georgia 647-8691
Ghana 647-4567
Greece 647-6113
Grenada 647-2621
Guadeloupe 647-2620
Guatemala 647-4980
Guinea 647-2865
Guinea-Bissau 647-4567
Guyana 647-4195
Haiti 647-4195
Honduras 647-3381
Hong Kong 647-6300
Hungary 647-3298
Iceland 647-5669
India 647-2351
Indonesia 647-3276
Iran 647-6111
Iraq 647-5692
Ireland 647-5669
Israel 647-3672
Italy 647-2453
Ivory Coast 647-2865
Jamaica 647-2620
Japan 647-3125
Jordan 647-1022

Country Phone (202)

Kazakhstan 647-6859
Kenya 647-5684
Kyrgyzstan 647-8956
Korea 647-7717
Kuwait 647-6562
Laos 647-3133
Latvia 647-3187
Lebanon 647-1030
Lesotho 647-8252
Liberia 647-3391
Libya 647-4674
Lithuania 647-3187
Luxembourg 647-6664
Macao 647-6300
Madagascar 647-5684
Malawi 647-8433
Malaysia 647-3276
Maldives 647-2351
Mali 647-3066
Malta 647-2453
Martinique 647-2620
Mauritania 647-2865
Mauritius 647-5684
Mexico 647-9894
Moldova 647-8671
Mongolia 647-6300
Morocco 647-4675
Mozambique 647-8252
Namibia 647-8252
Nepal 647-1450
The Netherlands 647-6664
Netherlands Antilles 647-2620
New Zealand 647-9691
Nicaragua 647-4975
Niger 647-3066
Nigeria 647-3395
Norway 647-5669
Oman 647-6558
Pacific Islands 647-3546
Pakistan 647-9823
Panama 647-4986
Paraguay 647-2296
Peru 647-3360
The Philippines 647-1221
Poland 647-1070
Portugal 647-1412
Qatar 647-6572
Romania 647-3187
Russia 647-9806
Rwanda 647-3139
SÜo TomÇ & Pr°ncipe 647-1707

Country Phone (202)

Saudi Arabia 647-7550
Senegal 647-2865
Seychelles 647-5684
Sierra Leone 647-3395
Singapore 647-3278
Somalia 647-8852
South Africa 647-8432
Spain 647-1412
Sri Lanka 647-2351
Sudan 647-9742
Suriname 647-4195
Swaziland 647-8252
Sweden 647-6071
Switzerland 647-1484
Syria 647-1131
Taiwan 647-7711
Tajikistan 647-8956
Tanzania 647-5684
Thailand 647-7108
Togo 647-2865
Trinidad & Tobago 647-2621
Tunisia 647-3614
Turkey 647-6114
Turkmenistan 647-8956
Uganda 647-5684
Ukraine 647-6795
United Arab Emirates 647-6558
United Kingdom 647-8027
Uruguay 647-2296
Uzbekistan 647-8956
Venezuela 647-3338
Vietnam 647-3132
Yemen, Rep. of 647-6571
Yugoslavia 647-4138
Zaire 647-2080
Zambia 647-8433
Zimbabwe 647-9429


Los Angeles Passport Agency
11000 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 13100
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Phone: 310/575-7080

San Francisco Passport Agency
525 Market Street, Suite 200
San Francisco, CA 94105-2773
Phone: 415/744-4008

Stamford Passport Agency
One Landmark Square
Broad and Atlantic Streets
Stamford, CT 06901
Phone: 203/325-1803

Washington Passport Agency
1425 K Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20524
Phone: 202/326-6021

Miami Passport Agency
51 Southwest First Avenue, Third Level
Miami, FL 33130
Phone: 305/536-6979

Honolulu Passport Agency
300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Suite C-106
Honolulu, HI 96850
Phone: 808/541-1918

Chicago Passport Agency
230 South Dearborn Street, Suite 380
Chicago, IL 60604
Phone: 312/353-7164

New Orleans Passport Agency
701 Loyola Avenue, Suite T-12005
New Orleans, LA 70113
Phone: 504/589-2335

Boston Passport Agency
10 Causeway Street, Suite 247
Boston, MA 02222
Phone: 617/565-7195

National Passport Center
31 Rochester Avenue
Portsmouth, NH 03810
Phone: 603/334-0500

New York Passport Agency
630 Fifth Avenue, Suite 270
New York, NY 10111
Phone: 212/399-5930

Philadelphia Passport Agency
600 Arch Street, Suite 4426
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Phone: 215/597-8027

Houston Passport Agency
1919 Smith Street, Suite 1100
Houston, TX 77022
Phone: 713/575-7080

Seattle Passport Agency
915 Second Avenue, Suite 992
Seattle, WA 98174
Phone: 206/553-7963


The Export-Import Bank (Eximbank) of the United States is
the U.S. government agency that facilitates the export financing
of U.S. goods and services. Eximbank offers five major export
finance support programs: Loans, Guarantees, Working Capital
Guarantees, Insurance and a Small Business Group which handles
working capital loan guarantees.
Eximbank’s export credit insurance program provides
insurance policies to give exporters protection against the
commercial and political risks of default when they find that
they must offer credit to compete for or expand foreign sales.
The program includes a “New-To-Export Policy” that offers special
assistance to small businesses in their exporting efforts.

Export-Import Bank Export Financing Hotline: 1-800-424-5201

Export-Import Bank of the U.S.
Public Affairs and Publications
811 Vermont Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20571
Phone: 202/566-4490
FAX: 202/566-7524

Marketing and Programs Development Division
811 Vermont Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20571
Phone: 202/566-8860
FAX: 202/566-7524

Export Insurance Division
811 Vermont Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20571
Phone: 202/566-8197
FAX: 202/566-7524


19 S. LaSalle Street, Suite 902
Chicago, IL 60603
Phone: 312/641-1915
FAX: 312/641-2292

Ashford Crossing Two
88050 Dairy Ashford, Suite 585
Houston, TX 77077
Phone: 713/589-8182
FAX: 713/589-8184

222 N. Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 1515
El Segundo, CA 90245
Phone: 310/322-1152
FAX: 310/322-2044

80 SW 8th Street, Suite 1800
Miami, FL 33130
Phone: 305/372-8540
FAX: 305/372-5114

6 World Trade Center
New York, NY 10048
Phone: 212/513-4292
FAX: 212/513-4277


Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) encourages
and assists U.S. private investments in lesser developed nations.
OPIC insurance and financing are available in 140 countries
around the world. OPIC provides for political risk insurance for
overseas investment and direct loans of up to $6 million for
small businesses.
For information about what OPIC can do, call 202/336-8799 or
FAX: 202/833-3375.

Overseas Private Investment Corporation
1100 New York Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20527
Phone: 202/336-8799
FAX: 202/789-2566


The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) is an
agency of the Executive Office of the President responsible for
developing and coordinating U.S. international trade and
commodity and trade-related investment policy.
The agency provides trade policy leadership and negotiating
expertise in major areas of responsibility including the
. All matters within the General Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade (GATT);
. Trade, commodity and trade-related investment matters
dealt with by international institutions such as the Organization
for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the United
Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD);
. Other trade and trade-related investment issues
including intellectual property protection issues and import
policy; and
. Enforcement and implementation of U.S. trade laws.

United States Trade Representative
Office of Public Affairs and Private Sector Liaison
600 17th Street, N.W., Room 103
Washington, D.C. 20506
Phone: 202/395-3350
FAX: 202/395-7226

Office of the General Counsel
United States Trade Representative
600 17th Street, N.W., Room 223
Washington, D.C. 20506
Phone: 202/395-3432
FAX: 202/395-3911

Office of Agriculture
United States Trade Representative
600 17th Street, N.W., Room 423
Washington, D.C. 20506
Phone: 202/395-5006
FAX: 202/395-3911

Office of Industry
United States Trade Representative
600 17th Street, N.W., Room 420
Washington, D.C. 20506
Phone: 202/395-5656
FAX: 202/395-3911

Office of Environment and Intellectual Property
United States Trade Representative
600 17th Street, N.W., Room 409
Washington, D.C. 20506
Phone: 202/395-7320
FAX: 202/395-3911

Office of Services, Investment & Science
United States Trade Representative
600 17th Street, N.W., Room 409
Washington, D.C. 20506
Phone: 202/395-3606
FAX: 202/395-3911

Office of Textiles
United States Trade Representative
600 17th Street, N.W., Room 300
Washington, D.C. 20506
Phone: 202/395-3026
FAX: 202/395-3911


The U.S. Customs Service, an agency within the Department of
Treasury, is responsible for enforcing the laws of the United
States at the country’s borders with respect to goods entering or
leaving the country. Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the U.S.
Customs Service divides its offices among seven regions.


U.S. Customs Service
1201 Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20229
Phone: 202/927-6724


10 Causeway Street
Boston, MA 02222-1056
Phone: 617/565-6215

6 World Trade Center
New York, NY 10048
Phone: 212/466-4547


312 Fore Street
P.O. Box 4688
Portland, ME 04112
Phone: 207/780-3326

40 South Gay Street
Baltimore, MD 21202
Phone: 410/962-2666

Hemisphere Center
Newark, NJ 07102
Phone: 201/645-3760

Kennedy Airport Area
Building 178, Room 330B
Jamaica, NY 11430
Phone: 718/553-1542

111 West Huron Street, Room 603
Buffalo, NY 14202
Phone: 716/846-4373

127 North Water Street
Ogdensburg, NY 13669
Phone: 315/393-0660

Second and Chestnut Streets, Room 102
Philadelphia, PA 19106
Phone: 215/597-4605

49 Pavillion Avenue
Providence, RI 02905
Phone: 401/528-5080

Main & Stabbins Streets
P.O. Box 1490
St. Albans, VT 05478
Phone: 802/524-1521


909 Southeast First Avenue
Miami, FL 33130
Phone: 305/536-5952


4430 East Adamo Drive, Suite 301
Tampa, FL 33605
Phone: 813/228-2381

One East Bay Street
Savannah, GA 31401
Phone: 912/944-4356

One Virginia Avenue
Wilmington, NC 28401
Phone: 919/343-4601

One La Puntilla
Old San Juan, PR 00901
Phone: 809/729-6950

200 East Bay Street
Charleston, SC 29402
Phone: 803/724-4312

Main P.O. Sugar Estate
Charlotte Amalie
St. Thomas, VI 00801
Phone: 809/774-2530

101 East Main Street
Norfolk, VA 23510
Phone: 804/441-6546

P.O. Box 17423
Washington, D.C. 20041
Phone: 703/318-0027


5850 San Felipe Street
Houston, TX 77057
Phone: 713/953-6825


1215 Royal Lane
P.O. Box 619050
Fort Worth, TX 75261
Phone: 214/574-2170

Building B, Room 134
Bridge of the Americas
P.O. Box 9516
El Paso, TX 79985
Phone: 915/534-6798

Lincoln Juarez Bridge
P.O. Box 3130
Laredo TX, 78041-3130
Phone: 512/726-2267

4550 75th Street
Port Arthur, TX 77642
Phone: 409/724-0087

International & Terrace Streets
Nogales, AZ 85621
Phone: 602/761-2010


423 Canal Street
New Orleans, LA 70130
Phone: 504/589-2976


150 North Royal Street
Mobile, AL 36602
Phone: 205/690-2106


55 East Monroe Street
Chicago, IL 60603-5890
Phone: 312/886-3377


610 South Canal Street
Chicago, IL 60607
Phone: 312/353-6100

477 Michigan Avenue, Room 200
Detroit, MI 48226-2568
Phone: 313/226-3177

515 West First Street, Room 209
Duluth, MN 55802-1390
Phone: 218/720-5201

110 South Fourth Street
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Phone: 612/348-1690

7911 Forsyth Boulevard, Suite 625
St. Louis, MO 63105
Phone: 314/425-3134

300 Second Avenue South
P.O. Box 789
Great Falls, MT 59405
Phone: 406/453-7631

Federal Building
P.O. Box 610
Pembina, ND 58271
Phone: 701/825-6201

Plaza Nine Building, 6th Floor
55 Erieview Plaza
Cleveland, OH 44114
Phone: 216/522-4284

6269 Ace Industrial Drive
P.O. Box 37260
Milwaukee, WI 53237-0260
Phone: 414/297-3925


One World Trade Center, Suite 705
Long Beach, CA 90831
Phone: 213/491-7200


605 West Fourth Street
Anchorage, AK 99501
Phone: 907/271-2675

300 South Ferry Street
Terminal Island
San Pedro, CA 90731
Phone: 213/514-6001

880 Front Street, Suite 5-S-9
San Diego, CA 92188
Phone: 619/557-5360

P.O. Box 2450
San Francisco, CA 94111
Phone: 415/705-4340

335 Merchant Street
P.O. Box 1641
Honolulu, HI 96806
Phone: 808/541-1725

511 Northwest Broadway
Portland, OR 97209
Phone: 503/326-2865

1000 Second Avenue, Suite 2200
Seattle, WA 98104
Phone: 206/553-0554


The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Foreign Agricultural
Service (FAS) represents U.S. agricultural interests through its
network of agricultural counselors, attaches and trade officers
stationed overseas and its backup team of analysts, marketing
specialists, negotiators and related specialists in Washington,
Export services include trade leads, foreign buyers lists,
export market profiles, trade negotiations, credit guarantees,
food assistance, market development and efforts to counter unfair
trade practices abroad. The Trade Assistance and Planning Office
(TAPO) of the FAS is the main contact point for persons
interested in participating in export programs carried out by FAS
and the Commodity Credit Corporation.

Headquarters Contacts

U.S. Department of Agriculture
Foreign Agricultural Service
14th & Independence Avenue, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20250-1000
Phone: 202/720-7115
FAX: 202/720-1727

Trade Assistance and Promotion Office
Phone: 202/720-7420
FAX: 202/690-4374

European Area Officer (Non-EC)
Room 5080-S
Phone: 202/720-3080

European Area Officer (EC)
Room 5080-S
Phone: 202/720-2144

Western Hemisphere Area
Room 5604-S
Phone: 202/720-3221

North America Area
Room 5604-S
Phone: 202/720-3221

East Asia Pacific Area
Room 5098-S
Phone: 202/720-2690

Near East, South Asia and
Africa Area Officer
Room 5098-S
Phone: 202/720-7053


The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is the
principal Federal agency that implements the U.S. Foreign
Economic Assistance Program in nearly 100 countries throughout
the developing world. Acting on behalf of the U.S. government,
USAID commits a loan or awards a grant to an eligible
USAID-recipient country. From these loans and grants flow
technical assistance projects and commodity programs implemented
through the provision of technical assistance services and/or
commodities from U.S. suppliers.
USAID’s Center for Trade & Investment Services promotes
increased business activity between U.S. businesses and foreign
entrepreneurs in Asia, the Near East, Africa, Latin America,
Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States of the former
Soviet Union.
CTIS assists U.S. business by:
. Providing a central point of contact for all inquiries
about business opportunities in USAID-assisted countries;
. Providing information about USAID-financed procurement
. Providing information about USAID’s private sector
programs overseas;
. Sponsoring industry-specific transaction conferences;
. Linking U.S. firms with entrepreneurs overseas.

U.S. Agency for International Development
Center for Trade & Investment Services
Washington, D.C. 20523-0229
Phone: 202/663-2660

USAID’s Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business
Utilization/Minority Resource Center (OSDBU/MRC) maintains the
USAID Consultant Registry Information System (ACRIS). ACRIS is
an automated database that describes the capabilities of U.S.
businesses, organizations and institutions that have expressed
interest in participating in USAID-financed technical assistance
projects. The Office also maintains the Mailing List for the
A.I.D. Procurement Information Bulletin, which announces intended
procurement of USAID-financed commodities.

U.S. Agency for International Development
Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business
Utilization/Minority Resource Center
Washington, D.C. 20523-1414
Phone: 703/875-1551

USAID Unit #62206
APO AE 09812-2206

USAID/Nairobi, Kenya
Regional Economic Development Services Office (REDSO/ESA)
Washington, D.C. 20521-8900

USAID/Ivory Coast Regional Economic Development Services Office
Washington, D.C. 20521-2010

American Embassy/Tirana
PSC 59, Box 100 (A)
APO AE 09624

Washington, D.C. 20521-7020

Washington, D.C. 20521-6120

American Embassy/USAID
APO AA 34055

USAID/Belize City
Washington, D.C. 20521-3050

Washington, D.C. 20521-2120

American Embassy/USAID
Unit #3914
APO AE 34032

Washington, D.C. 20521-2170

USAID/Brasilia Unit #350
APO AA 34030

Washington, D.C. 20521-5740

Washington, D.C. 20521-2440

Washington, D.C. 20521-2100

American Embassy
PhNom Penh, Box P
APO AP 96546

Washington, D.C. 20521-2520

Washington, D.C. 20521-2460

Washington, D.C. 20521-2410

American Embassy
Unit #4128
APO AA 34033

American Embassy/USAID
APO AA 34038

American Embassy
Costa Rica
APO AA 34020

Unit #25402
APO AE 09213

American Embassy
Unit #25402
APO AE 09213

USAID/Santo Domingo
Unit #5541
APO AA 34041

American Embassy
Unit #5330
APO AA 34039-3420

Unit #64902
APO AE 09839-4902

American Embassy
El Salvador
APO AA 34023

American Embassy
Helsinki, (Box T)
APO AE 09723

USAID/Addis Ababa
Washington, D.C. 20521-2030

Regional Development Office
Washington, D.C. 20521-4290

Washington, D.C. 20521-2070

Washington, D.C. 20521-2020

American Embassy
Unit #3323
APO AA 34024

Washington, D.C. 20521-2110

Washington, D.C. 20521-2080

USAID/Port au Prince
Washington, D.C. 20521-3400

Unit #2927
APO AA 34022

American Embassy
Unit #25402
APO AE 09213-5270

USAID/New Delhi
Washington, D.C. 20521-9000

American Embassy/USAID
Box 4
APO AP 96520

Washington, D.C. 20521-3210

Unit #70206
APO AE 09892-0206

USAID/Alma Ata
Washington, D.C. 20521-7030

Washington, D.C. 20521-8900

American Embassy
Helsinki, (Box R)
APO AE 09723

Washington, D.C. 20521-2340

American Embassy
Helsinki, (Box V)
APO AE 09723

Washington, D.C. 20521-2040

Washington, D.C. 20521-2280

Washington, D.C. 20521-2050

American Embassy
PSC 461, Box 300
FPO AP 96521-0002

American Embassy
PSC 74, Box 22
APO AE 09718

Washington, D.C. 20521-2330

Washington, D.C. 20521-2540

Washington, D.C. 20521-6190

American Embassy
Unit #2715, Box 9
APO AA 34021

Washington, D.C. 20521-2420

Washington, D.C. 20521-8300

Washington, D.C. 20521-6220

USAID Unit #62206
APO AE 09812-2206

USAID/Panama City
Unit #0949
APO AA 34002

APO AE 34036

American Embassy/USAID
Unit #3760
APO AA 34031

American Embassy/USAID
Unit #8115
APO AP 96440

American Embassy
Washington, D.C. 20521-5010

American Embassy/USAID
Unit #25402
APO AE 09213-5260

American Embassy
PSC 77
APO AE 09721

Washington, D.C. 20521-2210

Washington, D.C. 20521-2130

Washington, D.C. 20521-5840

Washington, D.C. 20521-2360

Washington, D.C. 20521-9300

Washington, D.C. 20521-6100

American Embassy
Unit #63900
APO AE 09829-3900

Washington, D.C. 20521-2350

USAID/Dar es Salaam
Washington, D.C. 20521-2140

USAID, Box 47
APO AD 96546-7200

Washington, D.C. 20521-2300

Washington, D.C. 20521-6360

Washington, D.C. 20521-2190

Washington, D.C. 20521-5850

American Embassy
Unit #4516
APO AA 34035

American Consulate Jerusalem
APO AE 09830

Washington, D.C. 20521-6330

American Embassy/USAID
APO AE 09828

Washington, D.C. 20521-2310



State international trade offices offer trade information
and leads, export seminars and a variety of other services.

Alabama Office of International Development
401 Adams Avenue, Suite 600
Montgomery, AL 36130
Phone: 205/242-0400
FAX: 205/242-0486

Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development
Office of International Trade
3601 C Street, Suite 798
Anchorage, AK 99503
Phone: 907/561-5585
FAX: 907/561-4577

Arizona Department of Commerce International Trade and Investment
3800 North Central, Suite 1500
Phoenix, AZ 85012
Phone: 602/280-1371
FAX: 602/280-1305

Arkansas Industrial Development Commission
Office of International Marketing
One State Capitol Mall
Little Rock, AR 72201
Phone: 501/682-5275
FAX: 501/682-7341

California State World Trade Commission
1121 L Street, Suite 310
Sacramento, CA 95814
Phone: 916/324-5511
FAX: 916/324-5791

Colorado International Trade Office
1625 Broadway, Suite 680
Denver, CO 80202
Phone: 303/892-2850
FAX: 303/892-3848

Connecticut Department of Economic Development
International Division
865 Brook Street
Rocky Hill, CT 06067
Phone: 203/258-4200
FAX: 203/529-0535

Delaware Division of Economic Development
Office of Business Development
99 Kings Highway, Box 1401
Dover, DE 19903
Phone: 302/739-4271
FAX: 302/739-5749

District of Columbia Office of International Business
1250 I Street, N.W., Suite 1003
Washington, D.C. 20005
Phone: 202/727-1576
FAX: 202/727-1588

Florida Department of Commerce International Trade & Development
107 West Gaines Street, Room 366
Tallahassee, FL 32399-2000
Phone: 904/487-1399
FAX: 904/487-1407

Georgia Department of Industry, Trade and Tourism
Division of Trade
P.O. Box 1776
Atlanta, GA 30301
Phone: 404/656-3556
FAX: 404/656-3567

Hawaii Department of Business and Economic Development
International Services Branch
P.O. Box 2359
Honolulu, HI 96804
Phone: 808/586-2406
FAX: 808/586-2452

Idaho Department of Commerce International Business Development
700 West State Street
Boise, Idaho 83720-2700
Phone: 208/334-2470
FAX: 208/334-2783

Illinois Department of Commerce International Business Division
100 West Randolph, Suite C-400
Chicago, IL 60601
Phone: 312/814-7164
FAX: 312/814-6581

Indiana Department of Commerce International Trade Division
One North Capitol, Suite 700
Indianapolis, IN 46204
Phone: 317/232-8845
FAX: 317/232-4146

Iowa Department of Economic Development
International Marketing Division
200 East Grand Avenue
Des Moines, IA 50309
Phone: 515/242-4713
FAX: 515/242-4918

Kansas Department of Commerce International Development
700 Southwest Harrison Street, Suite 1300
Topeka, KS 66603
Phone: 913/296-4027
FAX: 913/296-5263

Kentucky Commerce Cabinet Office of International Trade
Capitol Plaza Tower, 24th Floor
Frankfort, KY 40601
Phone: 502/564-2170
FAX: 502/564-3256

Louisiana Department of Economic Development
Office of International Trade, Finance & Development
P.O. Box 94185
Baton Rouge, LA 70804
Phone: 504/342-5388
FAX: 504/342-5389

Maine Department of Economic and Community Development
State House Station 59
Augusta, ME 04333
Phone: 207/289-5700
FAX: 207/287-2861

Maryland World Trade Center
401 East Pratt Street, Suite 752
Baltimore, MD 21202
Phone: 410/333-4295
FAX: 410/333-8200

Massachusetts Office of International Trade
100 Cambridge Street, Room 902
Boston, MA 02202
Phone: 617/367-1830
FAX: 617/227-3488

Michigan Export Development Authority
1200 Sixth Street
Detroit, MI 48226
Phone: 313/256-2004
FAX: 313/256-1046

Minnesota Trade Office
1000 MN World Trade Center
St. Paul, MN 55101
Phone: 612/297-4657
FAX: 612/296-3555

Mississippi Department of Economic Development
Trade and Export Division
P.O. Box 849
Jackson, MS 39205
Phone: 601/359-3155
FAX: 601/359-2832

Missouri Department of Commerce International Business Office
P.O. Box 118
Jefferson City, MO 65102
Phone: 314/751-4855
FAX: 314/751-7384

Montana Department of Commerce
1424 Ninth Avenue
Helena, MT 59620
Phone: 406/444-3923
FAX: 406/444-2808

Nebraska Department of Economic Development
International Trade Promotion
301 Centennial Mall South
P.O. Box 94666
Lincoln, NE 68509
Phone: 402/471-3111
FAX: 402/471-3778

Nevada Commission on Economic Development
International Office
5151 South Carson Street
Carson City, NV 89710
Phone: 702/687-4325
FAX: 702/687-4450

New Hampshire Department of Resources and Economic Development
105 Loudon Road, Building 2
P.O. Box 856
Concord, NH 03301-0856
Phone: 603/271-2591
FAX: 603/271-2629

New Jersey Department of Commerce and Economic Development
Division of International Trade
153 Halsey Street, Fifth Floor
Newark, NJ 07100
Phone: 201/648-3518
FAX: 201/623-1287

New Mexico Office of International Trade
Economic Development and Tourism Department
1100 St. Francis Drive
Santa Fe, NM 87503
Phone: 505/827-0272
FAX: 505/827-0407

New Mexico Economic Development & Tourism Department
1100 St. Francis Drive
Santa Fe, NM 87503
Phone: 505/827-0350
FAX: 505/827-0263

New York Department of Commerce International Division
1515 Broadway, 51st Floor
New York, NY 10036
Phone: 212/827-6210
FAX: 212/827-6263

North Carolina Department of Economic & Community Development
430 North Salisbury Street
Raleigh, NC 27611
Phone: 919/733-7193
FAX: 919/733-0110

North Dakota Economic Development Commission
1833 East Bismarck Expressway
Bismarck, ND 58505
Phone: 701/221-5300
FAX: 701/221-5320

Ohio Department of Development International Trade Division
77 South High Street, 29th Floor
P.O. Box 1001
Columbus, OH 43266
Phone: 614/466-2317
FAX: 614/644-1789

Oklahoma Department of Commerce International Trade Division
P.O. Box 26980
Oklahoma City, OK 73126
Phone: 405/843-9770
FAX: 405/841-5199

Oregon Economic Development Department
International Trade Division
One World Trade Center, Suite 300
121 S.W. Salmon Street
Portland, OR 97204
Phone: 503/229-5625
FAX: 503/222-5050

Pennsylvania Department of Commerce
Bureau of Foreign Investment
486 Forum Building
Harrisburg, PA 17120
Phone: 717/787-7190
FAX: 717/234-4560

Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture
P.O. Box 10163
Santurce, PR 00908-1163
Phone: 809/722-5443
FAX: 809/923-9747

Rhode Island Department of Economic Development
International Trade Division
7 Jackson Walkway
Providence, RI 02903
Phone: 401/277-2601
FAX: 401/277-2102

Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management
22 Hayes Street, Room 120
Providence, RI 02908-5025
Phone: 401/277-2781
FAX: 401/277-6047

South Carolina State Development Board
P.O. Box 927
Columbia, SC 29202
Phone: 803/737-0400
FAX: 803/737-0818

South Dakota Office of Economic Development
Export Trade Marketing Division
711 Wells Avenue, Capitol Lake Plaza
Pierre, SD 57501
Phone: 605/773-5032
FAX: 605/773-3256

Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development
320 Sixth Avenue, Seventh Floor
Nashville, TN 37243-0405
Phone: 615/741-5870
FAX: 615/741-5829

Texas Department of Commerce
P.O. Box 12728
Austin, TX 78711
Phone: 512/472-5059
FAX: 512/472-5059

Utah Division of Business and Economic Development
International Business Development
324 South State Street, Suite 500
Salt Lake City, UT 84111
Phone: 801/538-8737
FAX: 801/538-8889

Vermont Department of Economic Development
Pavilion Office Building
109 State Street
Montpelier, VT 05609
Phone: 802/828-3221
FAX: 802/828-3258

Virginia Department of Economic Development
International Marketing
P.O. Box 798
Richmond, VA 23206
Phone: 804/371-8106; 800/553-3170
FAX: 804/786-1121

Washington Department of Trade and Development
Business & Market Development
2001 Sixth Avenue, Suite 2600
Seattle, WA 98121
Phone: 206/464-7143
FAX: 206/464-7222

Governor’s Office of Community & Industrial Development
State Capitol, Room M-146
Charleston, WV 25305-0311
Phone: 304/558-0400
FAX: 304/558-0362

Wisconsin Bureau of International Development
Department of Development
P.O. Box 7970
Madison, WI 53707
Phone: 608/831-9456
FAX: 608/831-6982

Wyoming International Trade Office
Herschler Building, 2nd Floor North
Cheyenne, WY 82002
Phone: 307/777-6412
FAX: 307/777-5840SECTION 5


Foreign Embassies in the United States maintain a staff of
commercial officers that can assist businesses in obtaining
market access information and explain procedures for conducting
business in their respective countries, such as regulatory and
tariff guidelines.

Embassy of the Republic of Afghanistan
2341 Wyoming Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/234-3770
FAX: 202/328-3516

Embassy of Algeria
2137 Wyoming Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/265-2800
FAX: 202/667-2174

Embassy of Argentina
Economics Division
1901 L Street, N.W., Suite 801
Washington, D.C. 20036
Phone: 202/265-4557
FAX: 202/775-4388

Embassy of Armenia
122 C Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20001
Phone: 202/628-5766
FAX: 202/628-5769

Embassy of Australia
1601 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/797-3000
FAX: 202/797-3168

Embassy of Austria
3524 International Court, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/895-6700
FAX: 202/895-6750

Embassy of Bahamas
2220 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/319-2660
FAX: 202/319-2668

Embassy of Bahrain
International Drive, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/342-0741
FAX: 202/362-2192

Embassy of Bangladesh
2201 Wisconsin Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20007
Phone: 202/342-8372
FAX: 202/333-4971

Embassy of Belgium
3330 Garfield Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/333-6900
FAX: 202/333-3079

Embassy of Belize
2535 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/332-9636
FAX: 202/332-6888

Embassy of Bolivia
3014 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/483-4410
FAX: 202/328-3712

Embassy of Botswana
3400 International Drive, Suite 77
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/244-4990
FAX: 202/244-4164

Embassy of Brazil
3006 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/745-2700
FAX: 202/745-2827

Embassy of Brunei
2600 Virginia Avenue, N.W., Suite 300
Washington, D.C. 20037
Phone: 202/342-0159
FAX: 202/342-0158

Embassy of Bulgaria
1621 22nd Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/387-7969
FAX: 202/234-7973

Embassy of Burkina Faso
2340 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/332-5577
FAX: 202/667-1882

Embassy of Burma
2300 S Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/332-9044
FAX: 202/332-9046

Embassy of Burundi
2233 Wisconsin Avenue, N.W., Suite 212
Washington, D.C. 20007
Phone: 202/342-2574
FAX: 202/342-2578

Embassy of Cameroon
2349 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/265-8790
FAX: 202/387-3826

Embassy of Canada
501 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20001
Phone: 202/682-1740
FAX: 202/682-7726

Embassy of Cape Verde
3415 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20007
Phone: 202/965-6820
FAX: 202/965-1207

Embassy of The Central African Republic
1618 22nd Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/483-7800
FAX: 202/332-9893

Embassy of Chad
2002 R Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009
Phone: 202/462-4009
FAX: 202/265-1937

Embassy of Chile
1732 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
Phone: 202/785-1746
FAX: 202/887-5579

Embassy of China
2300 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/328-2500
FAX: 202/234-3715

Embassy of Colombia
2118 Leroy Plaza, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/387-8338
FAX: 202/232-8643

Embassy of Costa Rica
1825 Connecticut Avenue, Suite 211
Washington, D.C. 20009
Phone: 202/234-2945
FAX: 202/234-8653

Embassy of Cyprus
2211 R Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/462-5772
FAX: 202/483-6710

Embassy of Czechoslovakia
3900 Linnean Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/363-6307
FAX: 202/244-2147

Embassy of Denmark
3200 Whitehaven Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/234-4300
FAX: 202/328-1470

Embassy of Djibouti
1156 15th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20006
Phone: 202/331-0270
FAX: 202/331-0302

Embassy of The Dominican Republic
1715 22nd Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/332-6280
FAX: 202/265-8057

Embassy of Ecuador
2535 15th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009
Phone: 202/234-7200
FAX: 202/667-3482

Embassy of Egypt
2310 Decatur Place, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/232-5400
FAX: 202/332-7894

Embassy of El Salvador
2308 California Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/265-9671

Embassy of Ethiopia
2134 Kalorama Road, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/234-2281
FAX: 202/328-7950

Embassy of Finland
3216 New Mexico Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20016
Phone: 202/363-2430
FAX: 202/363-8233

Embassy of France
4101 Reservoir Road, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20007
Phone: 202/944-6000
FAX: 202/944-6116

Embassy of Gabon
2034 20th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009
Phone: 202/797-1000
FAX: 202/332-0668

Embassy of Gambia
1030 15th Street, N.W., Suite 720
Washington, D.C. 20005
Phone: 202/785-1399
FAX: 202/785-1430

Embassy of the German Federal Republic
4645 Reservoir Road, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20007
Phone: 202/298-4000
FAX: 202/298-4249

Embassy of Ghana
3512 International Drive, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/686-4520
FAX: 202/686-4527

Embassy of Great Britain
3100 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/462-1340
FAX: 202/898-4255

Embassy of Greece
2221 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/667-3168
FAX: 202/939-5824

Embassy of Guatemala
Economic and Commercial Office
2220 R Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/745-4952
FAX: 202/745-1908

Embassy of Guinea
2112 Leroy Plaza, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/483-9420
FAX: 202/483-8688

Embassy of Guyana
2490 Tracy Place, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/265-6900
FAX: 202/232-1297

Embassy of Haiti
2311 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/332-4090
FAX: 202/745-7215

Embassy of Honduras
3007 Tilden Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/966-7702
FAX: 202/966-9751

Embassy of Hungary
3910 Shoemaker Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/362-6730
FAX: 202/966-8135

Embassy of Iceland
2022 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/265-6653
FAX: 202/265-6656

Embassy of India
2107 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/939-7000
FAX: 202/939-7027

Embassy of Indonesia
2020 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
Phone: 202/775-5200
FAX: 202/775-5365

Embassy of Iraq
1801 P Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009
Phone: 202/483-7500
FAX: 202/462-5066

Embassy of Ireland
2234 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/462-3939
FAX: 202/232-5993

Embassy of Israel
3514 International Drive, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/364-5500
FAX: 202/364-5647

Embassy of Italy
1601 Fuller Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009
Phone: 202/328-5500
FAX: 202/238-5542

Embassy of the Ivory Coast
2424 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/797-0300
FAX: 202/483-8482

Embassy of Jamaica
1850 K Street, N.W., Suite 355
Washington, D.C. 20006
Phone: 202/452-0660
FAX: 202/452-0081

Embassy of Japan
2520 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/939-6700
FAX: 202/328-2187

Embassy of Jordan
3504 International Drive, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/966-2664
FAX: 202/966-3110

Embassy of Kenya
2249 R Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/387-6101
FAX: 202/462-3829

Embassy of Korea
2450 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/939-5600
FAX: 202/797-0595

Embassy of Kuwait
3500 International Drive, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/364-2200
FAX: 202/364-2241

Embassy of Lebanon
2560 28th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/939-6300
FAX: 202/939-6324

Embassy of Liberia
5303 Colorado Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/723-0437
FAX: 202/726-4913

Embassy of Luxembourg
2200 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/265-4171
FAX: 202/328-8270

Embassy of Madagascar
2374 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/265-5525
FAX: 202/483-7603

Embassy of Malaysia
2401 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/328-2700
FAX: 202/332-8914

Embassy of Mali
2130 R Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/332-2249
FAX: 202/332-6603

Embassy of Malta
2017 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/462-3611
FAX: 202/779-7097

Embassy of Mexico
1911 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20006
Phone: 202/728-1700
FAX: 202/728-1712

Embassy of Morocco
1601 21st Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009
Phone: 202/462-7979
FAX: 202/265-0161

Embassy of Nepal
2131 Leroy Plaza, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/667-4550

Embassy of the Netherlands
4200 Linnean Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
phone: 202/244-5300
FAX: 202/362-3430

Embassy of New Zealand
37 Observatory Circle, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/328-4800
FAX: 202/667-5227

Embassy of Nicaragua
1627 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009
Phone: 202/939-6570
FAX: 202/939-6542

Embassy of Nigeria
2201 M Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20037
Phone: 202/822-1500
FAX: 202/775-1385

Embassy of Norway
2720 34th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/333-6000
FAX: 202/337-0870

Embassy of Oman
1717 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/387-2014
FAX: 202/797-1558

Embassy of Pakistan
2315 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/939-6200
FAX: 202/387-0484

Embassy of Panama
2862 McGill Terrace, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/483-1407
FAX: 202/483-8413

Embassy of Paraguay
2400 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/483-6960
FAX: 202/234-4508

Embassy of Peru
1700 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
Phone: 202/833-9860
FAX: 202/659-3660

Embassy of The Philippines
1617 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
Phone: 202/483-1414
FAX: 202/328-7614

Embassy of Poland
2640 16th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009
Phone: 202/234-3800
FAX: 202/328-6271

Embassy of Portugal
2125 Kalorama Road, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/328-8610
FAX: 202/462-3726

Embassy of Qatar
600 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W., Suite 1180
Washington, D.C. 20037
Phone: 202/338-0111
FAX: 202/337-2989

Embassy of Romania
1607 23rd Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/232-4747
FAX: 202/232-4748

Embassy of Russia
1125 16th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
Phone: 202/628-7551
FAX: 202/628-0252

Embassy of Saudi Arabia
601 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20037
Phone: 202/342-3800
FAX: 202/337-3233

Embassy of Senegal
1825 Connnecticut Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20006
Phone: 202/234-0540
FAX: 202/332-6315

Embassy of Singapore
1824 R Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009
Phone: 202/667-7555
FAX: 202/265-7915

Embassy of South Africa
3051 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/232-4400
FAX: 202/265-1607

Embassy of Spain
2700 15th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009
Phone: 202/265-0190
FAX: 202/328-3212

Embassy of Sri Lanka
2148 Wyoming Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/483-4025
FAX: 202/232-7181

Embassy of Sudan
2210 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/338-8365
FAX: 202/667-2406

Embassy of Sweden
600 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W., Suite 500
Washington, D.C. 20037
Phone: 202/944-5600
FAX: 202/342-1319

Embassy of Switzerland
2900 Cathedral Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/745-7900
FAX: 202/387-2564

Embassy of Syria
2215 Wyoming Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/232-6313
FAX: 202/234-9548

Embassy of Thailand
2300 Kalorama Road, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/483-7200
FAX: 202/429-2949

Embassy of Trinidad and Tobago
1708 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/467-6490
FAX: 202/785-3130

Embassy of Tunisia
1515 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20005
Phone: 202/862-1850
FAX: 202/862-1858

Embassy of Turkey
2523 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/483-5367
FAX: 202/328-6055

Embassy of the Ukraine
3350 M Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20007
Phone: 202/333-0817

Embassy of the United Arab Emirates
600 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W., Suite 740
Washington, D.C. 20037
Phone: 202/338-6500
FAX: 202/337-7029

Embassy of Uruguay
1918 F Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20006
Phone: 202/331-1313
FAX: 202/593-0935

Embassy of Uganda
5909 16th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C.
Phone: 202/726-7100
FAX: 202/726-1727

Embassy of Venezuela
1099 30th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/342-2214
FAX: 202/342-6820

Embassy of Yugoslavia
2410 California Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/462-6566
FAX: 202/797-9663 or 462-5446

Embassy of Zaire
1800 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009
Phone: 202/234-7690

Embassy of Zambia
2419 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/265-9717
FAX: 202/332-0826

Embassy of Zimbabwe
2852 McGill Terrace, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/332-7100
FAX: 202/483-9326



Multilateral development organizations making loans to
foreign nations can be a source of exporting opportunities for
U.S. companies.
U.S. Executive Directors at multilateral development
organizations can help in providing procurement contracts
resulting from loans or grants made by their respective
institutions. The following is a list of contacts:

World Bank
1818 H Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20433
Phone: 202/458-0110

International Monetary Fund
700 19th Street, N.W., Room 13-320
Washington, D.C. 20431
Phone: 202/623-7759

Inter-American Development Bank
1300 New York Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20577
Phone: 202/623-1000SECTION 7


American Chambers of Commerce Abroad (AmChams) are voluntary
associations of business executives concerned with U.S. foreign
trade and investment. AmChams assert U.S. business views in host
countries by representing their members before governments,
business communities and the general public. Typical AmCham
services include:

. Export-import trade leads;
. Business and government contacts;
. Meetings featuring U.S. and foreign business leaders
and officials;
. Periodic bulletins and publications;
. Clearinghouse of information on trade, investment and
. Information centers for customs duties, tariffs and
regulations; and
. Library and reference facilities for member use.

American Chamber of Commerce in Argentina
Avenue Leandro North Alem 1110, Piso 13
1101 Buenos Aires, Argentina
Phone: 541-311-5420/5126
FAX: 514-311-9076

American Chamber of Commerce in Australia – Sydney
Level 2, 41 Lower Fort Street
Sydney, N.S.W. 2000, Australia
Phone: 612-241-1907
FAX: 612-251-5220

American Chamber of Commerce in Australia – Adelaide
Level 1, 300 Flinders Street
Adelaide, S.A. 5000, Australia
Phone: 618-224-0761
FAX: 618-224-0628

American Chamber of Commerce in Australia – Melbourne
Level 1, 123 Lonsdale Street
Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia
Phone: 613-663-2644
FAX: 613-663-2473

American Chamber of Commerce in Australia – Brisbane
Level 23, 68 Queen Street
Brisbane, Queensland 4000, Australia
Phone: 617-221-8542
FAX: 617-221-6313

American Chamber of Commerce in Australia – Perth
Level 6, 231 Adelaide Terrace
Perth, W.A. 6000, Australia
Phone: 619-325-9540
FAX: 619-221-3725

American Chamber of Commerce in Austria
Porzellangasse 35
A-1090 Vienna, Austria
Phone: 43-222-319-5751
FAX: 43-222-319-5151

American Chamber of Commerce in Belgium
Avenue des Arts 50, Boite 5
B-1040 Brussels, Belgium
Phone: 32-2-513-67-70/9
FAX: 32-2-513-79-28

American Chamber of Commerce of Bolivia
Casilla 8268
La Paz, Bolivia
Phone: 5212-342-523
FAX: 5212-371-503

American Chamber of Commerce in Brazil – Rio de Janeiro
C.P. 916, Praca Pio X-15, Fifth Floor
20040 Rio de Janiero, RJ – Brazil
Phone: 5521-203-2477
FAX: 5521-263-4477

American Chamber of Commerce for Brazil – Salvador
Rua da Espanha 2, Salas 604-606
40000 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
Phone: 5571-242-0077; 242-5606
FAX: 5571-243-9986

American Chamber of Commerce for Brazil – Sao Paulo
Rua Alexandre Dumas 1976
04717 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
Phone: 5511-246-9199
FAX: 5511-246-9080

Chilean-American Chamber of Commerce
Avenida AmÇrico Vespucio Sur 80, 9ß Piso
82 Correo 34
Santiago, Chile
Phone: 562-208-4140
FAX: 562-206-0911

American Chamber of Commerce in the People’s Republic of China –
G/F Great Wall Sheraton Hotel
North Donghuan Road
Beijing, China
Phone: 861-500 5566 Ext. 2271

American Chamber of Commerce in Shanghai
c/o Union Building, Suite 1804
100 Yanan Road, East
Shanghai 200002, China
Phone: 32-65800
FAX: 32-00203

Colombian-American Chamber of Commerce
Apdo. AÇreo 8008
Calle 35, No. 6-16
Bogot†, Colombia
Phone: 571-285-7800
Fax: 571-288-6434

American Chamber of Commerce in Colombia – Cali
Avenida 1 N, No.3N-97
Cali, Colombia
Phone: 573-610-162; 672-993
FAX: 573-672-992

Colombian-American Chamber of Commerce -Cartagena
Edificio Banco de Colombia, Of. 500
Apdo. AÇreo 20483
Cartagena, Colombia
Phone: 575-365-7724
FAX: 575-365-1704

Colombian-American Chamber of Commerce – Medell°n
Apartado AÇreo 66655
Medell°n, Colombia
Phone: 573-268-7491

Costa Rican-American Chamber of Commerce
c/o Aerocasillas, P.O. Box 025216
Department 1576
Miami, FL 33102-5216
Phone: 506-20-22-00
FAX: 506-20-23-00

American Chamber of Commerce in Czech and Slovak Republics
Karlovo Namesti 24
120 80 Prague 2, Czech Republic
Phone: 42-2 299-887
FAX: 42-2 291-481

American Chamber of Commerce in the Dominican Republic
Torre B.H.D.
Av. Winston Churchill, P.O. Box 95-2
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Phone: 1-809-544-2222
FAX: 1-809-544-0502

Ecuadorian-American Chamber of Commerce
Edificio Multicentra, 4ß P
La Ni§a y Avda. 6 de Diciembre
Quito, Ecuador
Phone: 5932-543-512
FAX: 5932-505-571

Ecuadorian-American Chamber of Commerce
F. Cordova 812, Piso 3, Oficina 1
Edificio Torres de la Merced
Guayaquil, Ecuador
Phone: 5934-566-481
FAX: 5934-563-259

American Chamber of Commerce in Egypt
Cairo Marriott Hotel, Suite 1541
P.O. Box 33 Zamalek
Cairo, Egypt
Phone: 20-2-340-8888

American Chamber of Commerce of El Salvador
87 Avenue North, #720
Apartment A, Col. Escal¢n
San Salvador, El Salvador
Phone: 503-23-3292
FAX: 503-24-6856

American Chamber of Commerce in France
21 Avenue George V
F-75008 Paris, France
Phone: 33-1-47-23-70-28
FAX: 33-1-47-20-18-62

American Chamber of Commerce in Germany
Rossmarkt 12, Postfach 100 162
D-6000 Frankfurt/Main 1, Germany
Phone: 49-69-28-34-01
FAX: 49-69-28-56-32

American Chamber of Commerce in Germany – Berlin
Budapesterstrasse 29
W-1000 Berlin 30, Germany
Phone: 49-30-261-55-86
FAX: 49-30-262-26-00

American – Hellenic Chamber of Commerce
16 Kanari Street, 3rd Floor
Athens 106 74, Greece
Phone: 30-1-36-18-385/36-36-407
FAX: 30-1-36-10-170

Guam Chamber of Commerce
102 Ada Plaza Center
P.O. Box 283
Agana, Guam 96910
Phone: 671-472 6311-8001

American Chamber of Commerce in Guatemala
12 Calle-I-25, Zona 10
Edif. Giminis 10, Torre Norte
Nivel 12, Of. 1206
Guatemala, Guatemala
Phone: 5022-353-372
FAX: 5022-353-372

Honduran-American Chamber of Commerce
Hotel Honduras Maya, Apdo. Pos. 1838
Tegucigalpa, Honduras
Phone: 504-23-70-43
FAX: 504-32-20-31

Honduran-American Chamber of Commerce – San Pedro Sula
Centro Bella Aurora, Apdo. Postal 1209
San Pedro Sula, Honduras
Phone: 504-654-0164

American Chamber of Commerce in Hong Kong
1030 Swire House, Central P.O. Box 355
Hong Kong
Phone: 852-526-0165
FAX: 852-810-1289

American Chamber of Commerce in Hungary
Dozza Gyorgy ut. 84/A, Room 406
H-1064 Budapest, Hungary
Phone: 36-1-142-9108
FAX: 36-1-122-8890

American Business Council – India
U – 50 Hotel Hyatt Regency
New Delhi 110 066, India
Phone: 91-11- 688-5443
FAX: 9-11-688-5046

American Chamber of Commerce in Indonesia
The Landmark Center, 22nd Floor, Suite 2204
Jalan Jendral Sudirman I
Jakarta, Indonesia
Phone: 62-21-571-0800, Ext. 2222
FAX: 622-1-571-0656

American Chamber of Commerce in Ireland
20 College Green
Dublin 2, Ireland
Phone: 353-1-679-3733
FAX: 353-1-679-3402

Israel-American Chamber of Commerce and Industry
35 Shaul Hamelech Boulevard
64927 Tel Aviv, Israel
Phone: 972-3-6952341
FAX: 972-3-6951272

American Chamber of Commerce in Italy
Via Cantu 1
20123 Milan, Italy
Phone: 39-2-86-90-661
FAX: 39-2-80-57-737

American Chamber of Commerce, Ivory Coast
01 BP 3394
Abidjan 01, Ivory Coast
Phone: 225-21 67 66/44 68 48
FAX: 225-21 68 17

American Chamber of Commerce of Jamaica
The Wyndham Hotel
77 Knutsford Boulevard
Kingston 5, Jamaica
Phone: 1-809-926-7866/67
FAX: 1-809-929-8597

American Chamber of Commerce in Japan – Tokyo
Fukide Building, #2
4-1-21 Toranomon, Minato-ku
Tokyo 105, Japan
Phone: 8133-433-5381
FAX: 8133-436-1446

American Chamber of Commerce in Japan – Okinawa
P.O. Box 235
Okinawa City 904, Japan
Phone: 819-889-8935-2684

American Chamber of Commerce in Korea
Room 307, Chosun Hotel
Seoul, Korea
Phone: 822-753-6471/6516
FAX: 822-755-6577

American Business Council of Malaysia
15.01 Lev 15th, Amoda/22 Jalan Imbi
55100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Phone: 603-248-2407/2540
FAX: 603-242-8540

American Chamber of Commerce in Mexico – Mexico City
Mailing address in the U.S.
P.O. Box 60326, Apdo. 113
Houston, Texas 77205-1794
Phone: 525-724-3800
FAX: 525-703-3908

American Chamber of Commerce in Mexico – Guadalajara
Avda. Moctezuma #442
Col. Jardines del Sol
45050 Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico
Phone: 5236-34-6606
FAX: 5236-34-7374

American Chamber of Commerce in Mexico – Monterrey
Picacho 760, Despachos 4 y 6, Col. Obispado
Monterrey, N.L., Mexico
Phone: 5283-48-7141/4749
FAX: 5283-48-5574

American Chamber of Commerce in Morocco
18, Rue Colbert
Casablanca 01, Morocco
Phone: 212-2-31-14-48
FAX: 212-2-31-66-07

The American Chamber of Commerce in the Netherlands
Carnegieplein 5
2517 KJ The Hague, the Netherlands
Phone: 31-70-3-65-98-08/9
FAX: 31-70-3-64-69-92

The American Chamber of Commerce in New Zealand
P.O. Box 3408
Wellington, New Zealand
Phone: 64-47-27549
FAX: 64-44-993579

American Chamber of Commerce of Nicaragua
Apdo. 202
Managua, Nicaragua
Phone: 5052-67-30-99
FAX: 5052-67-30-98

American Chamber of Commerce in Pakistan
NIC Building, Sixth Floor Abbasi Shaheed Road, GPO Box 1322
Karachi 74000 Pakistan
Phone: 92-21-526-436
FAX: 92-21-568-3935

American Chamber of Commerce & Industry of Panama
Apartado 168, Estafeta Balboa
Panama 1, Republic of Panama
Phone: 507-69-3881
FAX: 507-23-3508

Paraguayan-American Chamber of Commerce
Edif. El Faro Internacional Pß 4
Asunci¢n, Paraguay
Phone: 59521-422-132-136
FAX: 59521-422-135

American Chamber of Commerce in Peru
Avenida Ricardo Palma 836, Miraflores
Lima 18, Per£
Phone: 5114-47-9349
FAX: 5114-47-9352

American Chamber of Commerce in the Philippines
P.O. Box 1578, MCC
Manila, Philippines
Phone: 632-818-7911
FAX: 632-816-6359

American Chamber of Commerce in Poland
Pac Powstancow Warszawy 1
PL 00950 Warsaw, Poland
Phone: 4822-026-39-60
FAX: 4822-26-51-31

American Chamber of Commerce in Portugal
Rue de D. Estafania 155, 5 Esq.
Lisbon 1000, Portugal
Phone: 351-1-57-25-61
FAX: 351-1-57-25-80

American Businessmen’s Association – Eastern Province
P.O. Box 1329
Dhahran, Saudi Arabia 31311
Phone: 966-3-875-2933
FAX: 966-3-876-1018

The American Businessmen’s Association – Eastern Province
c/o Al Bustan
P.O. Box 88, Dhahran Airport 31932
Saudi Arabia
Phone: 966-3-857-6464
FAX: 966-3-857-0364

American Businessmen of Jeddah
Hyatt Regency – Jeddah
P.O. Box 8483
Jeddah 21482, Saudi Arabia
Phone: 966-2-685-3335
FAX: 966-2-685-1498

American Businessmen’s Group of Riyadh
P.O. Box 3050
Riyadh 11471, Saudi Arabia 07045
Phone: 966-1-477-7341
FAX: 966-1-478-7682

American Business Council of Singapore
Scotts Road, #16-07 Shaw Center
Singapore 0922
Phone: 65-235-0077
FAX: 65-732-5917

American Chamber of Commerce in South Africa
P.O. Box 62280
Johannesburg, South Africa
Phone: 27-11-788-0265/6
FAX: 27-11-880-1632

American Chamber of Commerce in Spain
Avenida Diagonal 477
08036 Barcelona, Spain
Phone: 34-3-405-12-66
FAX: 34-3-405-31-24

American Chamber of Commerce in Spain – Madrid
Hotel Euro Building
Padre Damian 23
28036 Madrid, Spain
Phone: 34-1-458-65-59
FAX: 34-1-458-65-20

American Chamber of Commerce of Sri Lanka
c/o U.S. Embassy
210 Galle Road
Colombo 3, Sri Lanka

American Chamber of Commerce in Sweden
Box 5512
114 85 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone: 08-666-11-00
FAX: 08-662-74-57

Swiss American Chamber of Commerce
Talacker 41
8001 Zurich, Switzerland
Phone: 41-1-211-24-54
FAX: 41-1-211-95-72

American Chamber of Commerce – Kaohsiung
123-3 Ta-Pei Road, First Floor #1-1
Niao Sung Hsiang
Kaohsiung County 83305, Taiwan
Phone: 886-07-731-3712

American Chamber of Commerce in Taipei
Room 1012-Chia Hsin Building Annex
96 Chung Shan North Road, Section 2
P.O. Box 17-277
Taipei 104, Taiwan
Phone: 866-2-581-7809
FAX: 886-2-542-3376

American Chamber of Commerce in Thailand
P.O. Box 11-1095
140 Wireless Road, Seventh Floor
Kian Gwan Building
Bangkok, Thailand
Phone: 662-251-9266
FAX: 662-255-2454

Turkish-American Businessmen’s Association
Fahri Gizdem Sokak 22/5
80280 Gayrettepe, Istanbul, Turkey
Phone: 901-274-2824-212
FAX: 901-275-9316

Turkish-American Businessmen’s Association
Farabi Sok. 12/8
06680 Cankaya, Anakaram, Turkey
Phone: 90-41-28-06-89 or 67-14-10
FAX: 90-41-67-27-44

Turkish-American Businessmen’s Association
Organize Sanayi Bolgesi
Yesil Cad. #21, 16080 Bursa, Turkey
Phone: 90-24-33-12-43 or 30-00-11
FAX: 90-24-33-43-04

Turkish-American Businessmen’s Association
Ataturk Cad. 49/4
Gaziantep, Turkey
Phone: 90-85-10-14-14
FAX: 90-85-10-14-16

Turkish-American Businessmen’s Association of Izmir
Altay Is Merkezi 601
Sair Esref Bulvari #18
Izmir 35250, Turkey
Phone: 90-51-41-40-68-70
FAX: 90-51-41-40-69

American Business Council of Dubai/Northern Emirates
International Trade Center, Suite 1610
P.O. Box 9281
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Phone: 971-4-314-735
FAX: 971-4-314-227

American Chamber of Commerce in the United Kingdom
75 Brook Street
London W1Y 2EB, England
Phone: 44-71-493-03-81
FAX: 44-71-493-23-94

Chamber of Commerce Uruguay-U.S.A.
Calle Bart¢lome Mitre 1337
Casilla de Correo 809
Montevideo, Uruguay
Phone: 5982-95-90-59
FAX: 5982-95-90-59

Venezuelan-American Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Torre Credival, Piso 10
2da. Avenida de Campo Alegre, Apartado 5181
Caracas 1010A, Venezuela
Phone: 582-263-0833
FAX: 582-263-1829


Foreign Chambers of Commerce in the United States serve to
promote and encourage international trade and can be an excellent
source of information and contacts.

Argentina-American Chamber of Commerce
10 Rockefeller Plaza, Tenth Floor
New York, NY 10020
Phone: 212/698-2238
FAX: 212/698-2239

Australian American Chamber of Commerce, Inc.
P.O. Box 438
Honolulu, HI 96809
Phone: 808/526-2242

U.S.-Austrian Chamber of Commerce, Inc.
165 West 46th Street, Room 1112
New York, NY 10036
Phone: 212/819-0117
FAX: 212/819-0117

Belgian-American Chamber of Commerce in the United States
350 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1322
New York, NY 10118
Phone: 212/967-9898
FAX: 212/629-0349

Brazilian-American Chamber of Commerce in the United States
22 West 48th Street, Room 404
New York, NY 10036
Phone: 212/575-9030
FAX: 212/921-1078

Brazilian-American Chamber of Commerce
80 Southwest Eighth Street, Suite 1800
Miami, FL 33130
Phone: 305/579-9030
FAX: 305/579-9756

U.S. Office of China Chamber of International Commerce
4310 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 136
Washington, D.C. 20008
Phone: 202/244-3244
FAX: 202/244-0478

Colombian-American Association, Inc.
150 Nassau, Suite 2015
New York, NY 10038
Phone: 212/233-7776
FAX: 212/233-7779

Danish-American Chamber of Commerce
825 Third Avenue
New York, NY 10019
Phone: 212/980-6240
FAX: 212/754-1904

Ecuadorean-American Association, Inc.
150 Nassau, Suite 2015
New York, NY 10038
Phone: 212/808-0978
FAX: 212/233-7779

U.S.-Egypt Chamber of Commerce
330 East 39th Street, #32L
New York, NY 10016
Phone: 212/867-2323
FAX: 212/697-0465

Finnish-American Chamber of Commerce
380 Madison Avenue, 24th Floor
New York, NY 10017
Phone: 212/808-9721
FAX: 212/490-1041

French-American Chamber of Commerce in the United States
509 Madison Avenue, Suite 1900
New York, NY 10022
Phone: 212/371-4466
FAX: 212/371-5623

German-American Chamber of Commerce
40 West 57th Street, 31st Floor
New York, NY 10019-4092
Phone: 212/974-8830
FAX: 212/974-8867

German-American Chamber of Commerce
104 South Michigan Avenue, Suite 600
Chicago, IL 60603-5978
Phone: 312/782-8557
FAX: 312/782-3892

German-American Chamber of Commerce
One Park Plaza Building, Suite 1612
Los Angeles, CA 90010
Phone: 213/381-2236
FAX: 213/381-3449

German-American Chamber of Commerce
465 California Street, Suite 910
San Francisco, CA 94104
Phone: 415/392-2262
FAX: 415/392-1314

Representative for German Industry and Trade
1627 I Street N.W., Suite 550
Washington, D.C. 20006
Phone: 202/659-9177
FAX: 202/659-4779

Representative for German Industry and Trade
5555 San Felipe, Suite 1030
Houston, TX 77056
Phone: 713/877-1114
FAX: 713/877-1602

Representative for German Industry and Trade
3475 Lenox Road, N.E., Suite 620
Atlanta, GA 30326
Phone: 404/239-9494
FAX: 404/264-1761

Guatemala-U.S. Trade Association
299 Alhambra Circle #207
Coral Gables, FL 33134
Phone: 305/443-0343
FAX: 305/443-0699

Hellenic-American Chamber of Commerce
29 Broadway, Room 1508
New York, NY 10006
Phone: 212/629-6380
FAX: 212/564-9281

India Chamber of Commerce of America
445 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10022
Phone: 212/755-7181

Ireland-United States Council for Commerce
551 Madison Avenue, Eleventh Floor
New York, NY 10022
Phone: 212/248-0008
FAX: 212/255-6752

American-lsrael Chamber of Commerce
350 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1919
New York, NY 10118-1988
Phone: 212/971-0310
FAX: 212/971-0331

American-Israel Chamber of Commerce
180 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 911
Chicago, IL 60601
Phone: 312/641-2937
FAX: 312/641-2941

Italy-American Chamber of Commerce, Inc.
350 Fifth Avenue, Suite 3015
New York, NY 10118
Phone: 212/279-5520
FAX: 212/279-5839

Honolulu-Japanese Chamber of Commerce
2454 South Beretania Street
Honolulu, HI 96826
Phone: 808/949-5531
FAX: 808/949-3020

Japanese Business Association of Southern California
345 South Figueroa Street, Suite 206
Los Angeles, CA 90071
Phone: 213/485-0160
FAX: 213/626-5526

Japanese Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Chicago
401 North Michigan Avenue, Room 602
Chicago, IL 60611
Phone: 312/332-6199
FAX: 312/822-9773

Japanese Chamber of Commerce of New York, Inc.
145 West 57th Street, Sixth Floor
New York, NY 10019
Phone: 212/246-8001
FAX: 212/246-8002

Korean Chamber of Commerce
3350 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 660
Los Angeles, CA 90010
Phone: 213/480-1115
FAX: 213/480-7521

U.S.-Korea Society
725 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10021
Phone: 212/517-7730
FAX: 212/794-9761

Mexican Chamber of Commerce of Arizona
P.O. Box 626
Phoenix, AZ 85001
Phone: 602/252-6448

Mexican Chamber of Commerce of the County of Los Angeles
125 Paseo de La Plaza, Room 404
Los Angeles, CA 90012
Phone: 310/826-9898
FAX: 310/826-2876

U.S.-Mexico Chamber of Commerce
1211 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
Phone: 202/296-5198
FAX: 202/822-0075

Netherlands Chamber of Commerce in the United States, Inc.
One Rockefeller Plaza, Eleventh Floor
New York, NY 10020
Phone: 212/265-6460
FAX: 212/265-6402

Netherlands Chamber of Commerce in the United States
233 Peachtree Street, N.E., Suite 404
Atlanta, GA 30303
Phone: 404/523-4400
FAX: 404/522-7116

Norwegian-American Chamber of Commerce
Upper Midwest Chapter
229 Foshay Tower
Minneapolis, MN 55402
Phone: 612/332-3338
FAX: 612/332-1386

Norwegian-American Chamber of Commerce
20 California Street, Sixth Floor
San Francisco, CA 94111-4803
Phone: 415/986-0770
FAX: 415/986-6025

Norwegian-American Chamber of Commerce
800 Third Avenue, 23rd Floor
New York, NY 10022
Phone: 212/421-9210
FAX: 212/838-0374

Peruvian-American Association
50 West 34th Street
New York, NY 10036
Phone: 212/964-3855

Philippine-American Chamber of Commerce
711 Third Avenue, 17th Floor
New York, NY 10017
Phone: 212/972-9326
FAX: 212/867-9882

Philippine-American Chamber of Commerce
c/o Philippine Consulate
447 Sutter Street
San Francisco, CA 94108
Phone: 415/433-6666

Puerto Rico Chamber of Commerce in the United States
Box 899, Ansonia Station
New York, NY 10023
Phone: 212/924-4731

Saudi Arabian Council of Chambers of Commerce and Industry
c/o Hamed Jared, Washington Representative
Embassy of Saudi Arabia
601 New Hampshire Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20037
Phone: 202/342-3800
FAX: 202/342-0271

Spain-U.S. Chamber of Commerce
350 Fifth Avenue, Room 3514
New York, NY 10118
Phone: 212/967-2170
FAX: 212/564-1415

Swedish-American Chamber of Commerce
599 Lexington Avenue, 42nd Floor
New York, NY 10022
Phone: 212/838-5530
FAX: 212/755-7953

Swedish-American Chamber of Commerce
230 California Street, Suite 602
San Francisco, CA 94111-4319
Phone: 415/781-4188
FAX: 415/781-4189

Swiss-American Chamber of Commerce
37 West 67th Street
New York, NY 10023
Phone: 212/875-9688
FAX: 212/873-2836

Trinidad and Tobago Chamber of Commerce
c/o Trintoc Services, Ltd.
400 Madison Avenue, Room 803
New York, NY 10016
Phone: 212/759-3388
FAX: 212/319-9677

British-American Chamber of Commerce
52 Vanderbuilt Avenue, 20th Floor
New York, NY 10017
Phone: 212/661-4060
FAX: 212/661-4074

British-American Chamber of Commerce
41 Sutter Street, Suite 303
San Francisco, CA 94104
Phone: 415/296-8645


U.S. Business Council S.E. Europe
1901 North Fort Meyer Drive, Suite 303
Arlington, VA 22209
Phone: 703/527-0280
FAX: 703/527-0282

U.S.-ASEAN Trade Council
425 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10017
Phone: 212/688-2755
FAX: 212/371-7420

Asia Society
725 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10021
Phone: 212/288-6400
FAX: 212/517-8315

Asia Society
1785 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
Phone: 202/387-6500
FAX: 202/387-6945

Council of the Americas
680 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10021
Phone: 212/628-3200
FAX: 212/517-6247

Houston Inter-American Chamber of Commerce
510 Bering Drive, Suite 300
Houston, TX 77057
Phone: 713/975-6171
FAX: 713/975-6610

Latin Chamber of Commerce
1417 West Flagler Street
Miami, FL 33135
Phone: 305/642-3870
FAX: 305/541-2181

Latin American Manufacturing Association
419 New Jersey Avenue, S.E.
Washington, D.C. 20003
Phone: 202/546-3803
FAX: 202/546-3807

Pan American Society of the United States, Inc.
680 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10021
Phone: 212/249-8950
FAX: 212/517-6247

U.S. Hispanic Chamber of Commerce
1030 15th Street N.W., Suite 206
Washington, D.C. 20005
Phone: 202/842-1212
FAX: 202/842-3221

National Council on U.S.-Arab Relations
1735 I Street, N.W., Suite 515
Washington, D.C. 20006
Phone: 202/293-0801
FAX: 202/293-0903

National U.S.-Arab Chamber of Commerce
1825 K Street, N.W., Suite 1107
Washington, D.C. 20006
Phone: 202/331-8010
FAX: 202/331-8297

Northeast U.S.-Arab Chamber of Commerce
420 Lexington Avenue, Suite 2739
New York, NY 10017
Phone: 212/986-8024
FAX: 212/986-0216

U.S.-Arab Chamber of Commerce
One World Trade Center, Suite 4657
New York, NY 10048
Phone: 212/968-8024
FAX: 212/968-0216

U.S.-Arab Chamber of Commerce, Pacific
P.O. Box 422218
San Francisco, CA 94142-2218
Phone: 415/398-9200
FAX: 415/398-7111


Listed below are a selected group of organizations that help
businesses engage in international trade. In addition, local
international trade organizations are abundant throughout the
United States. These groups usually meet on a regular basis,
sponsor seminars and support their members’ international trade
interests. Contact the Federation of International Trade
Associations (see below) for the international trade association
in your area.

American Association of Exporters and Importers (AAEI)
11 West 42nd Street
New York, NY 10036
Phone: 212/944-2230
FAX: 212/382-2606

AAEI provides its member firms with information on trade
regulations, legislation and international developments affecting
business through weekly and quarterly publications. AAEI also
testifies before Congress and other levels of government to
address international trade related problems. Membership
consists of multinational, medium- and small-size firms
representing a broad cross section of industry sectors.

U.S. Chamber of Commerce of the United States
International Division
1615 H Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20062
Phone: 202/463-5460
FAX: 202/463-3114

The U.S. Chamber of Commerce represents American business.
It lobbies the U.S. government for specific trade policies and
sponsors a number of conferences. The U.S. Chamber also supports
a number of country- or regional-specific Chambers of Commerce.

National Association of Export Companies (NEXCO)
P.O. Box 1330, Murray Hill Station
New York, NY 10156
Phone: 212/725-3311
FAX: 212/725-3312

Membership consists of exporting companies. The
organization holds monthly meetings in New York, although
membership is nationwide, and communicates through a monthly

National Customs Brokers and Forwarders Association of
America (NCBFAA)
One World Trade Center, Suite 1153
New York, NY 10048
Phone: 212/432-0050
FAX: 212/432-5709

NCBFAA, a membership organization of customs brokers and
forwarders, sells its membership list, which can assist in
locating customs brokers and freight forwarders in your area.

National Foreign Trade Council (NFTC)
1625 K Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20006
Phone: 202/887-0278
FAX: 202/452-8160

NFTC’s membership consists of about 500 U.S. manufacturing
corporations and service companies having international
operations or interests.

Small Business Exporters Association (SBEA)
4603 John Taylor Court
Annandale, VA 22003
Phone: 703/642-2490
FAX: 703/750-9655

SBEA is a trade association representing small- and
medium-size exporters.

United States Council for International Business
1212 Avenue of the Americas, 21st Floor
New York, NY 10026
Phone: 212/354-4480
FAX: 212/575-0327

The Council, a membership organization, is the U.S.
affiliate of the International Chamber of Commerce, which
monitors and facilitates trade worldwide. The Council also
oversees the Interstate Commerce Commission’s Temporary Admission
Carnet System, which simplifies customs procedures governing the
temporary exportation of commercial product samples.

World Trade Centers Association (WTCA)
One World Trade Center, 35th Floor
New York, NY 10048
Phone: 212/432-2626
FAX: 212/488-0064

WTCs are located around the world, including Centers
throughout the United States and Mexico. One of the ways in
which WTCs encourage global trade is through the World Trade
Centers’ trade lead data bank and messaging system, NETWORK.
World Trade Center members receive office support services,
consultant services, conferences and reciprocal membership
services at WTCs globally.

Federation of International Trade Associations (FITA)
1851 Alexander Bell Drive
Reston, VA 22091
Phone: 703/391-6108

FITA can assist you in locating an international trade
association in your geographic area.



The following publications and information sources are of
interest to small business exporters. The publications and
information sources are organized by chapter as they are referred
to in Breaking Into The Trade Game. Other publications and
information sources not referred to directly, but of relevance to
each chapter heading, are also included.


U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents
Washington, D.C. 20402
Phone: 202/783-3238 or contact the Government
PrintingOffice in your area.

Publication number 045-000-00263-2
Price: $4.75

Identifies major federal programs designed to assist small
business owners export.

U.S. Small Business Administration
International Trade Assistance

Available through your nearest SBA District Office.

Information on SBA’s financial and business development
assistance programs for the small business exporter.


United States Department of Agriculture
Foreign Agricultural Service
Information Division, Room 4638-S
Washington, D.C. 20520-1000
Phone: 202/720-3329
Price: $17.00 per year (domestic delivery)
$21.00 per year (international delivery)

Magazine on international trade and trade opportunities
overseas. Published by the Department of Agriculture.

U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents
Washington, DC 20402
Phone: 202/783-3238 or contact the Government
Printing Office in your area.
Price: $61.00 per year; $2.50 each issue

Magazine on international trade issues and business
opportunities overseas. Published bi-weekly by the U.S.
Department of Commerce.

733 15th Street, N.W., Suite 1100
Washington, D.C. 20005
Phone: 202/737-1060
FAX: 202/783-5966

Price: $49.00 per year

The “how to” international business magazine for U.S.
exporters. Published ten times a year.

34 West 37th Street
New York, NY 10018
Phone: 212/563-2772
FAX: 212/563-2798

Price: $144.00 per year

Monthly reports on the business of exporting.

6849 Old Dominion Drive, #200
McLean, VA 22101
Phone: 703/448-1338
FAX: 703/448-1841

Price: $45.00 per year (10 editions)

Features trade briefs, information on financing, shipping,
air cargo, trucks and rails, and current legislation.

North American Publishing Company
401 North Broad Street
Philadelphia, PA 19108
Phone: 215/238-5300

Price: $45.00 per year

Information on international finance, transportation and

American International Publishing Corporation
500 Mamaroneck Avenue, Suite 314
Harrison, NY 10528
Phone: 914/381-7700
FAX: 914/381-7713
Price: $48.00 per year

Reports on overseas market opportunities, global corporate
strategies, trade and political developments to assess their
impact on U.S. imports, exports, joint ventures and acquisitions.

Two World Trade Center, 27th Floor
New York, NY 10048
Phone: 212/837-7000

Price: $295.00 per year

Information on domestic and foreign economic developments
plus export opportunities, agricultural trade leads, shipyards,
export ABCs and trade fair information. Feature articles on
tariff and non-tariff barriers, licensing controls, joint
ventures and trade legislation in foreign countries.

Taipan Press, Inc.
500 Newport Center Drive
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Phone: 714/640-7070
FAX: 714/640-7770

Price: $24.00 per year

Profiles of successful exporters and reports on
international trade developments.


U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents
Washington, D.C. 20402
Phone: 202/783-3238 or contact the Government Printing
Office in your area.
Publication number: 003-009-00487-0
Price: $9.50

The steps involved in exporting and sources of assistance.

by John Jagoe
Export USA Publications
4141 Parklawn Avenue South, Suite 110
Minneapolis, MN 55435
Phone: 612/893-0624
FAX: 612/903-1626

Price:$295.00 for manual
$175.00 for quarterly updates

Step-by-step procedural manual for marketing U.S. products
worldwide. The manual contains illustrations, flow charts,
worksheets and samples of export contracts, shipping documents
and effective international correspondence. Order from the
National Association of Manufacturers, P.O. Box 2000,
Kearneysville, WV 25430-2000 or call 1-800-445-6285.

The Small Business Foundation of America
1155 15th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20005
Phone: 202/223-1103

Price: $49.50

Instructional manual on conducting international business,
with detailed information on the process of exporting.

The World Trade Centers Association
Gale Research Inc.
Attn: David Hoagg
835 Penobscot Building
Detroit, MI 48226
Phone: 313/961-2242
FAX: 313/961-6241

Price: $395.00

Directory of trade-oriented businesses. Included is
coverage of emerging trade regions. Four volumes.

by Ernst & Young
John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
605 Third Avenue
New York, NY 10158
Phone: 1-800-225-5945

Price: $39.95 hardcover
ISBN: 0-471-528-307

Handbook providing practical information and instructions
for global expansion.

by Kenneth D. Weiss
John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
605 Third Avenue
New York, NY 10158
Phone: 1-800-225-5945
Price: $14.95
ISBN: 0-471-536-27X

A handbook designed to guide the novice through complexities
of foreign trade. Discussion includes source and outlet
management, suppliers and distributors, goods and currencies.

Instrument Society of America
P.O. Box 3561Durham, NC 27702
Phone: 919/549-8411
FAX: 919/549-8288
Price: $24.00 ISA members, $30.00 non-members

Includes export market sales techniques, international field
support needs, international business transactions and
international sales and marketing plans.

by John S. Gordon and J.R. Arnold
John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
605 Third Avenue
New York, NY 10158
Phone: 1-800-225-5945

Price: $60.00
ISBN: 0-471-61334-7

A step-by-step guide on how to enter and succeed in the
export marketplace. Topics include markets, strategies,
organizational management, risk analysis and controls.


Export Hotline: 1-800-USA-XPORT

Presented by AT&T and the Hotline Referral Network in
cooperation with the U.S. Department of Commerce. The Export
Hotline is a corporate sponsored, nationwide fax retrieval system
providing international trade information for U.S. business. Its
purpose is to help find new markets for U.S. products and

The Export Opportunity Hotline
The Small Business Foundation of America
1155 15th Street N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20005
Phone: 1-800-243-7232
In Washington, D.C. 202/223-1104

Answers questions about getting started in exporting.
Advice on product distribution; documentation; licensing and
insurance; export financing; analyzing distribution options,
export management firms; customs; currency exchange systems and
travel requirements.

Lake Michigan College
International Business Center
Small Business Development Center
2755 East Napier Avenue
Benton Harbor, MI 49022-1899
Phone: 616/927-8100, extension 5116
Fax: 616/927-8103 fax

Price: $20.00 disk, $20.00 hard copy


U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents
Washington, D.C. 20402
Phone: 202/783-3238 or contact the Government Printing
Office in your area.

Price: $67.00 per year

Commercial and economic data on a country-by-country basis.
Consists of material issues published irregularly for
approximately one year. Prepared in cooperation Department of

United States Merchandise Trade: Exports, General
Imports, and Imports for Consumption
U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents
Washington, D.C. 20402
Phone: 202/783-3238 or contact the Government Printing
Office in your area.

Price: $136.00 per year.

A monthly country-specific breakdown of imports and exports
by Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) number.

U.S. Department of Commerce
14th and Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-1986
FAX: 202/482-2164 or try EBB as a guest user by dialing
202/482-3870 with PC and modem (2400 baud, 8 bit words,
no parity, 1 stop bit)

EBB is a personal computer-based electronic bulletin board
providing trade leads and up-to-date statistical releases from
the Bureau of Census, the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, the Federal Reserve Board and other federal

U.S. Department of Commerce
14th and Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-1986
FAX: 202/482-2164

Price: $35.00 per disk or $360.00 for one year

The NTDB is an international trade data bank compiled by 15
U.S. government agencies. It contains the latest census data on
U.S. imports and exports by commodity and country, the complete
CIA World Factbook, current market research, the Foreign Traders
Index and many other data series. The NTDB is available at over
800 federal depository libraries, or can be purchased on CD-ROM
for personal PC use.

Offices of Africa, Near East and South Asia 202/482-1064.
Categories include general and country information (Nigeria and
South Africa). For the Office of the Near East, categories
include general and country information (Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt,
Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco,
Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates
and Yemen). Categories for the Office of South Asia include
general and country information (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan,
India, Nepal, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka).

U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents
Washington, D.C. 20402
Phone: 202/783-3238 or contact the Government Printing
Office in your area.

Price: $23.00

Produced by Central Intelligence Agency, this book gives
geographic and demographic information about each country around
the globe.

The World Bank
Publication Department, 1818 H Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20433
Phone: 202/473-2209

Price: $7.95 plus $3.50 shipping and handling

Gives population, gross domestic product and average growth
rates for every country.

United Nations Publications
Room DC 2-0853
New York, NY 10017
Phone: 212/963-8302

Price: $100.00

Economic and demographic data for 220 countries. Most
recent statistics through 1989.

United Nations Publications, Room DC2-0853
New York, NY 10017
Phone: 212/963-8302

Price: $125.00

Statistical analysis of overall foreign trade by regions and
countries, as well as world exports by origin, destination and
product category.

United Nations Publications
Two UN Plaza, Room DC2-0853
New York, NY 10017
Phone: 212/963-8302, 1-800-253-9646

Price: $125.00

Demographics for 220 countries. Most recent statistics
through 1989.

4611-F Assembly Drive
Lanham, MD 20706
Phone: 1-800-274-4888

Price: $95.00

Economic and demographic data for 200 countries.

Gale Research Incorporated
Penobscot Building
Detroit, MI 48226
Phone: 313/961-2242
FAX: 313/961-6241

Price: $235.00

Detailed marketing profiles for 141 nations. Includes
country reports averaging 31 pages in length. 4,400 pages in
three volumes.

Predicasts North America
11001 Cedar Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44106
Phone: 1-800-321-6388
FAX: 216/229-9944

Price: $1,300.00 for entire set; regional and product
editions, $900.00 each; single editions $450.00

Abstracts over 60,000 forecasts for products and markets in
countries outside the United States. Published annually.

Dun’s Marketing Services
Three Sylvan Way
Parsippany, NJ 07054-3896
Phone: 1-800-526-0651

Price: $530.00 per year

An annual handbook covering more than 220 world markets.

U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents
Washington, D.C. 20402
Phone: 202/783-3238 or contact the GovernmentPrinting
Office in your area.

Price: $39.00

U.S. Department of Commerce
Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402
Phone: 202/783-3238 or contact the Government Printing
Office in your area.

Price: Varies depending on country.

Reports provide background statistics and economic
information on specific countries. Published annually. (These
reports are also available on the National Trade Data Bank.)

Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development
2001 L Street N.W., Suite 700
Washington, D.C. 20036
Phone: 202/785-6323
FAX: 202/785-0345

Price: $18.00 per issue or $225.00 per year.

Provides economic summaries of OECD’s 24 member countries.
Published semi-annually.

1730 K Street, N.W. Suite 304
Washington, D.C. 20006
Phone: 1-800-366-5968
FAX: 202/331-3759
Price: $59.95 per country

Country-specific directories of key government and private
sector contacts. Seventeen sections of invaluable information.

Matthew Bender and Company
1275 Broadway
Albany, NY 12204
Phone: 1-800-424-4200
Cost range: $160.00 to $835.00

A series of multiple-volume manuals on doing business in a
number of foreign countries. Information includes legal
environments, product liability, foreign investment, tax
considerations, local forms of business incorporation, foreign
investment and intellectual property.

Gale Research Incorporated
Penobscot Building
Detroit, MI 48226
Phone: 313/961-2242
FAX: 313/961-6241
Price: $169.00

Eighty of the world’s largest trading nations as well as
many smaller countries. Includes country profiles, vital
statistics on population, currency exchange rates, GNP/GDP,
import/export/trade balance figures, major trading partners,
principal commodities and imported and exported.


For several areas of the world, the information is at your
fingertips from the U.S. Department of Commerce, if you have a
touch-tone telephone and a fax. Dial the number, follow
instructions and the requested information will automatically be
faxed to you. The Automated Fax Delivery System Flash Facts are
available 24 hours-a-day, seven days a week, free of charge.

Flash Facts are available for the following regions:

Eastern Europe Business Information Center (EEBIC)
202/482-5745. Information is available on specific Eastern
European countries including Albania, Bosnia-Hercegovina,
Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia,
Lithunia, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic and

Doing Business in Mexico 202/482-4464. Current
trade-related documents concerning Mexico are available.
Information is also available on the North American Free Trade
Agreement; tariffs, permits and customs regulations; marketing,
distribution and finance; investment; statistics and
demographics. The same type of information is available for
Canada by calling 202/482-3101.

Office of the Pacific Basin 202/482-3875 or 202/482-3646.
Categories include general export information, regional and
country information (Australia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Korea, Laos,
Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand
and Vietnam).

Business Information Service for the Newly Independent
States (BISNIS) 202/482-3145. Categories include U.S.-Newly
Independent States trade statistics, current export and
investment opportunities and upcoming trade events, general
investment and defense conversion opportunities, World Bank and
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
opportunities, export and trade opportunities and BISNIS


U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents
Washington, D.C. 20402
Phone: 202/783-3238 or contact the Government Printing
Office in your area.
Price: $8.50

Produced by the Department of Commerce Office of Export
Trading Company Affairs. Provides essential information on the
functions and advantages of establishing or using export trading

Third Edition
Bergano Book Co.
P.O. Box 190
Fairfield, CT 06430
Phone: 203/254-2054
FAX: 203/255-3817
Price: $49.50

Lists export management and trading companies, their product
areas and their foreign language capabilities.

Bergano Book Co.
P.O. Box 190
Fairfield, CT 06430
Phone: 203/254-2054
FAX: 203/255-3817
Price: $95.00

Contains thousands of entries of importing firms and major
distributors in Europe, North America, the Middle East, Asia,
Africa and Latin America.

European Distributors
P.O. Box 3467
Laguna Hills, CA 92654
Phone: 714/859-4040
Price: $37.50

Maintains a data bank of European distributors.

U.S. Department of Commerce
14th and Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20230
Phone: 202/482-4918

For a small fee, U.S. companies can list a photo and
description of their product in Commercial News USA, which is
distributed to more than 100,000 companies and government
officials overseas.

Johnston International Publications
950 Lee Street
Des Plaines, IL 60016
Phone: 708/296-0770
Price: $50.00 for 6 issues

Lists products of U.S. firms. Distributed worldwide.

Thomas International Publication
Five Penn Plaza
New York, NY 10001
FAX: 212/629-1140

Sent to businesses around the world, ALR is a catalog of the
product catalogs of hundreds of U.S. exporters.

Thomas International Publication
Five Penn Plaza
New York, NY 10001
Phone: 212/290-7213
FAX: 212/629-1140
Price: $120.00

A two volume, 3,000 page guide featuring names of U.S.
exporters, their product listings in more than 4,200 categories,
and where they export, by region.

Gales Research, Inc.
Penobscot Building
Detroit, MI 48226
Phone: 313/961-2242
FAX: 313/961-6241
Price: $165.00

Provides trade activity for every country of the world.
Information on principal exports, principal imports, principal
trading partners, international economic relationships,
membership in regional trading organizations and political data.

Gale Research, Inc.
Penobscot Building
Detroit, MI 48226
Phone: 313/961-2242
FAX: 313/937-6241
Price: $195.00 Seventh Edition

Over 5,700 scheduled exhibitions, trade shows, association
conventions, and similar events around the world are listed.


Unz & Company
190 Baldwin Avenue
Jersey City, NJ 07306
Phone: 1-800-631-3098
Price: $55.00

Arranged as a series of recommendations from an industry
expert to an imaginary shipper. Provides the guidance needed to
avoid many of the pitfalls of foreign trade.

International Trade Institute, Inc.
5055 North Main Street
Dayton, OH 45415
Phone: 1-800-543-2453
Price: $67.50

Examines steps that must be taken to process any
international order.

Unz & Company
190 Baldwin Avenue
Jersey City, NJ 07306
Phone: 1-800-631-3098
Price: $55.00

Leads the new exporter through every element of the export
process and introduces the experienced exporter to ways of doing
things perhaps not yet considered.

ICC Publishing, Inc.
156 Fifth Avenue
New York, NY 10010
Phone: 212/206-1150
Price: $24.95

Defines the thirteen 1990 trading terms and specifies the
respective rights and obligations of buyer and seller in an
international transaction.

ICC Publishing, Inc.
156 Fifth Avenue
New York, NY 10010
Phone: 212/206-1150
Price: $75.00

Complete text of the most useful instruments in
international trade. Contains documents concerning contractual
relations and documents related to the regulation of
international litigations.

Matthew Bender & Company
International Division
1275 Broadway
Albany, NY 12204
Phone: 1-800-424-4200
Price: $95.00

Guide to the negotiation and the drafting of contracts for
export sales.


Marine Midland Bank
2 World Trade Center, 24th Floor
New York, NY 10048
Phone: 212/912-2222
Price: $10.00

Business International
215 Park Avenue, South
New York, NY 10003
Phone: 212/460-0600
FAX: 212/995-8837
Price: $590.00 per year

Methods, management structures and motivations of market
players of all sizes. Examines markets as they respond to
changes in the financial climate, and provides a monthly round up
of the latest events, appointments and personnel moves.

Unz & Company
190 Baldwin Avenue
Jersey City, NJ 07306
Phone: 1-800-631-3098
Price: $189.95 for 7 titles; individual title prices
range from $39.95 to $99.95

Package includes seven titles that offer practical
information about issues involved in financing international
trade, getting paid by overseas customers and accounting for
international ventures.

John Wiley & Sons
605 Third Avenue
New York, NY 10158
Phone: 1-800-225-5945
ISBN: 1-471-836-540
Price: $55.00

Definitions of over 300 trade-related terms.

Eximbank Public Affairs Office
811 Vermont Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20571
Phone: 1-800-424-5401

Business International
215 Park Avenue South
New York, NY 10003
Phone: 212/460-0600
FAX: 212/995-8837
Price: $195.00

A reference manual including rules on remitting dividends
and profits, repatriation of capital, trade financing, borrowing
and investing instruments, tax rates, risk management tools and
import and export controls.

ICC Publishing Corporation
156 Fifth Avenue, Suite 820
New York, NY 10010
Phone: 212/206-1150
Publication 415 Price: $18.95

International Trade Institute, Inc.
5055 North Main Street
Dayton, OH 45415
Phone: 1-800-543-2453
Price: $67.00

Explanation of letters of credit (LCs) transactions.
Includes information on how to read LCs, examples of various
types of LCs, and what to do when you cannot collect or comply.

ICC Publishing Corporation
156 Fifth Avenue, Suite 820
New York, NY 10010
Phone: 212/206-1150

Lists international guidelines for collections.


Unz & Company
190 Baldwin Avenue
Jersey City, NJ 07306
Phone: 1-800-631-3098
Price: $49.95

Lists all terms and abbreviations used in the movement of
goods by water.

U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents
Washington, DC 20402
Phone: 202/783-3238 or contact the Government Printing
Office in your area.
Price: Subscription $87.00 with updates

Provides in-depth information on export licenses,
restrictive trade practices or boycotts, import regulations,
documentation requirements and related information.

Unz & Company
190 Baldwin Avenue
Jersey City, NJ 07306
Phone: 1-800-631-3098
Price: $55.00 for each document book

Series of document reference books for the most commonly
used import/export and hazardous goods forms, includes, but not
limited to, Shipper’s Export Declaration, Shipper’s letter of
instructions, pro forma invoice, commercial invoice and
Certificate of Origin.

Bureau of National Affairs
Distribution Center
9435 Key West Avenue
Rockville, MD 20850
Phone: 1-800-372-1033
Price: Three manuals $572.00 for one year subscription.
Update every week as information changes.

International Trade Institute
5055 North Main Street
Dayton, OH 45415
Phone: 1-800-543-2453
Price: $67.50

Guide to understanding ocean/air tariffs, usage of ocean/air
containers, how to obtain an international freight quotation,
port marks on international cargo, international ocean/air
shipping documents, basic trade terms and service organization.

Unz & Company
190 Baldwin Avenue
Jersey City, NJ 07306
Phone: 1-800-631-3098
Price: $75.00

Comprehensive exploration of the shipping industry.

U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents
Washington, D.C. 20402
Phone: 202/783-3238 or contact the Government Printing
Office in your area.
Price: Subscription $77.00 with updates and
supplements (2 volumes)


Two World Trade Center, 27th Floor
New York, NY 10048
Phone: 212/837-7000
Price: $295.00

Shipyards is a supplement to the Journal of Commerce. It
lists scheduled sailings of vessels worldwide.

Geyer-McAllister Publications
51 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10010
Phone: 212/689-4411
Price: $42.00 per year

Explores current topics related to international


Clark Boardman, Ltd.
435 Hudson Street
New York, NY 10014
Phone: 212/929-7500
Price: $90.00

General information on European licensing law.

Business International
215 Park Avenue, South
New York, NY 10003
Phone: 212/460-0600
FAX: 212/995-8837
Price: $1,765.00

Includes information on operating conditions and practices
for 57 countries.

Clark Boardman, Ltd.
435 Hudson Street
New York, NY 10014
Phone: 212/929-7500
Price: $115.00

Looseleaf binder covering federal international trade
regulations as they pertain to antitrust law.

Belmont Publications
1454 Belmont Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009
Phone: 1-800-332-3535 or 202/232-6334
FAX: 202/462-5478
Price: $297.00

A 1,200 page reference guide to virtually every key elected
and appointed government official in 188 nations including all
former Soviet Republics.

Belmont Publications
1454 Belmont Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009
Phone: 1-800-332-3535 or 202/232-6334
FAX: 202/462-5478
Price: $395.00 for 26 issues

Provides analysis of ongoing changes in governmental
structures and personnel around the world plus biographical
information on the people involved. Bi-weekly.


U.S. Small Business Administration
Answer Desk
Dial 1-800-8-ASK-SBA

Electronic Bulletin Board
From Washington, D.C. — 202/205-7265
Toll free — 1-800-859-4636 for a 2400 baud modem; 1-800-697-4636
for a 9600 baud modem. Set communications software protocol for
N (no parity), 8 (data bits), and 1 (stop bit). This is a
24-hour-a-day service with information on SBA export and
financial assistance, speakers, SBA’s women’s mentor program,
minority programs and a mail box for electronic conversations.

U.S. Agency for International Development
Center for Trade and Investment Services (CTIS). Tailored
country-specific information. 9:00-5:30 EST Monday through
202/663-2660; 1-800-USAID-4-U
FAX 202/663-2670

U.S. Department of Agriculture
Trade Information: 202/720-7420

U.S. Customs
Customs will help you identify your product’s code under the
Harmonized System (HS). Call 202/927-0370 for the phone number
of the Customs office nearest you. U.S. Customs has a NAFTA
hotline, too. Call 202/927-0066.

U.S. Department of Commerce
Trade Information Center
TDD 1-800-833-8723

National Trade Data Bank
Help # 202/482-1986
8:30-4:30 Monday-Friday EST

Economic Bulletin Board (EBB) – 202/482-3870. This is a 24-hour
service with information on trade leads and statistics.
Compatible with 300, 1200, 2400 or 9600 bps using standard
communications software. With 9600 bps service, call
202/482-1986. Staff available Monday-Friday 8:30 to 4:30;
202/482-1986. Subscribe through the Office of Business Analysis

U.S. Center for Standards and Certification Information
Information on product standards, testing and certification.

Export-Import Bank of the United States 1-800-424-5201

Overseas Private Investment Corporation 1-800-336-8799.


Presented by AT&T and the Hotline Referral Network in
cooperation with the U.S. Department of Commerce. The Export
Hotline, a corporate-sponsored, nationwide fax retrieval system
providing international trade information for U.S. business. Its
purpose is to help find new markets for U.S. products and

The Small Business Foundation of America
1155 15th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20005
Phone: 1-800-243-7232
In Washington, DC: 202/223-1104

Answers questions about getting started in exporting.
Advice on product distribution; documentation; licensing and
insurance; export financing; analyzing distribution options;
export management firms; customs; currency exchange systems and
travel requirements.



Tirana 42
All cities 628
Buenos Aires 1
Cordoba 51
All cities 8
Brisbane 7
Canberra 62
Melbourne 3
Perth 9
Sydney 2
Innsbruck 512
Salzburg 662
Vienna 1
Dhaka 2
Antwerp 3
Brussels 2
Belize City 2
La Paz 2
Santa Cruz 33
Gaborone 31
Brasilia 61
Pìrto Alegre 512
Recife 81
Rio de Janeiro 21
SÉo Paulo 11
Bandar Seri Begawan 2

Sofia 2
Bujumbura 22

(1 + Area Code + Local Number)
Alberta 403
British Columbia 604
Manitoba 204
New Brunswick 506
Newfoundland 709
Nova Scotia 902
Ontario (London) 519
Ontario (North Bay) 705
Ontario (Ottawa) 613
Ontario (Thunder Bay) 807
Ontario (Toronto) 416
Prince Edward Island 902
Quebec (Montreal) 514
Quebec (Quebec City) 418
Quebec (Sherbrooke) 819
Saskatchewan 306

N’Djamena 51
Santiago 2
Valparaiso 31
Beijing 1
Guangzhou 20
Shanghai 21
Barranquilla 58
Bogot† 1
Cali 3
Moroni 73
Prague 2
Aalborg 8
Copenhagen 3
Copenhagen suburbs 4
Cuenca 4
Quito 2
Alexandria 3
Cairo 2
Addis Ababa 1
Helsinki 0
Bordeaux 56
Marseille 91
Nice 93
Paris 1
Bonn 228
Berlin 30
Duesseldorf 211
Frankfurt 69
Munich 89
Stuttgart 711
Accra 21
Athens 1
Rodos 241
GUAM 671
Guatemala City 2
All other cities 9
Georgetown 2
Port-au-Prince 1
Hong Kong 5
Kowloon 3
Budapest 1
Reykjavik 1
Jakarta 21
Tehran 21
IRAQ 964
Baghdad 1
Dublin 1
Galway 91
Haifa 4
Jerusalem 2
Tel Aviv 3
Florence 55
Naples 81
Rome 6
Venice 41
JAPAN (incl. Okinawa) 81
Hiroshima 822
Kobe 78
Kyoto 75
Nagasaki 958
Osaka 6
Tokyo 3
Yokohama 45
Amman 6
Nairobi 2
Pusan 51
Seoul 2
Tripoli 21
All cities 75
Antananarivo 2
MALI 223
Acapulco 74
Cancun 988
Guadalajara 36
Mexico City 5
Monterrey 83
Tijuana 66
All cities 93
Casablanca not required
Marrakech 4
Tangier 99
Windhoek 61
Maputo 1
Amsterdam 20
The Hague 70
Aruba 8
Auckland 9
Christchurch 3
Wellington 4
Managua 2
Bergen 5
Oslo 2O
MAN 968
Islamabad 51
Karachi 21
Asunc°on 21
Arequipa 54
Lima 14
Cebu City 32
Dagupan 75
Manila 2
Krakow 12
Gdansk 68
Warsaw 22
Lisbon 1
Ponta Delgada 96
Bucharest 16 or 17
All cities 541
Dhahran 3
Jeddah 2
Medina 4
Riyadh 1
Cape Town 21
Durban 31
Johannesburg 11
Pretoria 12
Barcelona 3
Bilbao 4
Las Palmas de
Gran Canaria 28
Madrid 1
Seville 54
Colombo Central 1
Goteborg 31
Stockholm 8
Bern 31
Geneva 22
Lucerne 41
Zurich 1
Taipei 2
Dar es Salaam 51
Bangkok 2
Chieng Mai 53
TOGO 228
Tunis 1
Ankara 4
Istanbul 1
Abu Dhabi 2
Belfast 232
Cardiff 222
Edinburgh 31
Glasgow 41
Liverpool 51
London 71
Canelones 332
Mercedes 532
Montevideo 2
All Points 6
Caracas 2
Maracaibo 61
Maracay 43
Sana 2
Belgrade 11
Zagreb 41
Kinshasa 12
Lusaka 1
Harare 4

Christmas and Cocos Islands
Easter Island
Norfolk Island
Pitcairn Island
Wallis and Futuna Islands
Western Sahara



First class condition.

A.A.R.: Against all risks.

ACCEPTANCE: An agreement to purchase goods at a stated price and
under stated terms.

AD. VAL.: According to value (ad valorem).

AFFREIGHTMENT, CONTRACT OF: An agreement by a steamship line to
provide cargo space on a vessel at a specified time for a
specified price to accommodate an exporter or importer, who then
becomes liable for payment even though he is later unable to make
the shipment.

ALL-RISK CLAUSE: An insurance provision that all loss or damage
to goods is insured except inherent vice (self-caused).

ANTI-DUMPING CLAUSE: A tariff imposed to discourage sale of
foreign goods in the United States market at very low prices
(below foreign country’s domestic market) which might hurt U.S.

ARBITRAGE: The practice of exchanging the currency of one
country for that of another or a series of countries to gain an
advantage from the differences in exchange rates.

ARBITRATION CLAUSE: A clause in a sales contract outlining the
method under which disputes will be settled.

A/S: After sight.

BBL: Barrel.

B/D: Bar-draft.

B.D.I.: Both dates inclusive.

B/E: Bill of exchange.

B/L: Bill of lading.

B.O.: Bad order, buyers option.

B/P: Bills payable.

B.T.: Berth terms.

BOOKING NUMBER: A number assigned to a contract of affreightment
used as an identifying reference on bills and correspondence.

bu: Bushel.

bx: Box.

C.E.: Consumption entry.

C.O.D.: Cash on delivery.

C.O.S.: Cash on shipment.

C.P.: Charter party.

C.R.: Carriers risk.

CABLE ADDRESS: A code word of less than 10 letters, registered
annually with the Central Bureau of Registered Addresses, used in
lieu of the entire name and address of a firm receiving or
sending cablegrams in order to reduce the number of words
required in a cablegram.

CASH AGAINST DOCUMENTS (C.A.D.): A method of payment for goods
in which documents transferring title are given the buyer upon
payment of cash to an intermediary acting for the seller, usually
a commission house.

CASH IN ADVANCE (C.I.A.): A method of payment for goods in which
the buyer pays the seller in advance of the shipment of the
goods. Usually employed when the goods are built to order, such
as specialized machinery.

CASH WITH ORDER (C.W.O.): A method of payment for goods in which
cash is paid at the time of order and the transaction becomes
binding on both buyer and seller.

c.c.: Current cost.

CERTIFICATE OR ORIGIN: A certified document as to the origin of
goods, used in foreign commerce.

c.f.: Cubic foot.

CHARTER PARTY: Renting of an entire vessel or part of its
freight space for a particular trip or stipulated period of time.

C&F NAMED PORT: Cost and freight. All costs of goods and
transportation to the named port are included in the price
quoted. Buyer pays insurance while aboard ship up to overseas
inland destination.

c.i.: Cost and insurance.

c/i: Certificate of insurance.

C.I.F. NAMED PORT: Cost, insurance, freight. Same as C&F except
seller also provides insurance up to named destination.

C.I.F. & C.: Price includes commission as well as C.I.F.

C.I.F. & E.: Price includes exchange of currency from United
States to foreign money as well as C.I.F.

CLEAN BILL OF LADING: Document of receipt issued by a carrier
when the goods are received in good order.

DIRECTOR OF CUSTOMS: The representative of the U.S. Treasury
Department acting for the government in connection with foreign
traffic to specifically named inland sea ports.

COMMERCIAL CODE: A published code designed to reduce the total
number of words required in a cablegram.

CONSIGNEE MARKS: A symbol placed on packages for export for
identification purposes; generally consisting of a triangle,
square, circle, diamond, cross, with letters and/or numbers as
well as port of discharge.

CONSUL: A government official residing in a foreign country who
is charged with the representation of the interests of his
country and its nationals.

CONSULAR DECLARATION: A formal statement describing goods to be
shipped, made to the consul of the country of destination.
Approval must be obtained prior to shipment.

CONSULAR INVOICE: A document required by some foreign countries
showing exact information as to consignor, consignee, value and
description of shipment.

CONSULATE: The jurisdiction, terms of office, or official
premises of a consul.

CONSUMPTION ENTRY: An official form used for declaration of
value, description and the total duty due on such transaction.

c.p.d.: Charterers pays dues.

CREDIT RISK INSURANCE: A form of insurance which protects the
seller against loss due to default on the part of the buyer.

c.t.l.o.: Constructive total loss only.

CUSTOM HOUSE: The government office where duties and/or tolls
are placed on imports or exports and are paid on vehicles or
vessels entered or cleared.

CUSTOMHOUSE BROKERS: A person or firm, licensed by the Treasury
Department, engaged in entering and clearing goods through
customs. The duties of a broker include preparing the entry
blank and filing it; advising the importer on duties to be paid;
advancing duties and other costs; and, arranging for delivery to
his client, his trucking firm, or other carrier.

CUSTOMS TARIFF: A schedule of charges assessed by the federal
government on imported and/or exported goods.

cwt.: Hundredweight.

D.A.: Documents for acceptance.

D.D.: Double deck; demand draft.

D/D: Date draft.

D/S: Days after sight.

Dm.: Dekameter (10 meters long).

D/A SIGHT DRAFT: Documents against acceptance sight draft. A
method of payment for goods in which documents transferring title
are delivered to the buyer as soon as he signs an acceptance,
stamped on a draft, guaranteeing payment of the draft.

d.: A penny or pence.

d/a: When prefixed to word “clause” vessel must discharge

d.d.o.: Dispatch discharging only.

DEMURRAGE: Excess time taken for loading or unloading of a
vessel not caused by the vessel operator, but due to the acts of
a charterer or shipper. Also refers to imported cargo not picked
up within prescribed time.

DIRECT EXPORTING: Sale by an exporter directly to a buyer
located in a foreign country.

DISPATCH: An amount paid to a charterer by the vessel operator
if loading or unloading is accomplished in less time than
provided for in the charter party.

DISTRIBUTOR: A foreign agent who sells directly for a
manufacturer and maintains an inventory on hand.

d.l.o.: Dispatch loading only.

dm.: Decimeter (one tenth of a meter long).

DOCK RECEIPT: A receipt given for a shipment received or
delivered at a shipment pier. When delivery of a foreign
shipment is completed, the dock receipt is surrendered to the
vessel operator or his agent and serves as basis for preparation
of the Ocean Bill of Lading.

DOCUMENTS AGAINST PAYMENT (D/P): A type of payment for goods in
which the documents transferring title to the goods are not given
to the buyer until he has paid the value of a draft issued
against him.

d.p.: Direct port.

DRAWBACK: A partial refund of duties paid on importation of
goods which are further processed and then re-exported, or
exported in same condition as imported.

DUTY: A tax levied by a government on the import, export or use
and consumption of goods.

d.w.: Deadweight (ton 2240 pounds).

d.w.c.: Deadweight for cargo.

E.A.O.N.: Except as otherwise noted.

E.&.O.E.: Errors and omissions excepted.

E.B.: Eastbound.

E.E.: Errors excepted.

EXPORT MANAGEMENT COMPANY: An organization which, for a
commission, acts as a purchase agent for either a buyer or

ENTRY (CUSTOMS): A statement of the kinds, quantities and values
of goods imported together with duties, if any, declared before a
customs official.

ENTRY PAPERS: Those documents which must be filed with the
Customs officials describing goods imported, such as consumption
entry, Ocean Bill of Lading or Carrier Release, and Commercial

est.: Estimated.

est.wt.: Estimated weight.

et al: And other.

EX DOCK (IMPORT USAGE ONLY): The seller is obligated to place
the specified goods at the specified price on the import dock
clear of all customs and duty requirements. The buyer must do
nothing further than pick up the goods within a prescribed time

obligated to place the specified quantity of goods at the
specified price at his mill loaded on trucks, railroad cars or
any other specified means of transport. The buyer must accept
the goods in this manner and make all arrangements for

EXPORT: To send goods to a foreign country.

EXPORT BROKER: One who brings together the buyer and seller for
a fee and then withdraws from the transaction.

EXPORT DECLARATION: A formal statement made to the Director of
customs at a port of exit declaring full particulars about goods
being exported.

EXPORT LICENSE: A permit required to engage in the export of
certain commodities and quantities to certain destinations. List
of such goods are found in the comprehensive Export Schedule
issued by the Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

EXPORT MERCHANT: A producer or merchant who sells directly to a
foreign purchaser without going through an intermediate such as
an export broker.

EXPORT RATE: A freight rate specially established for
application on export traffic and generally lower than the
domestic rate.

F/A: Free astray.

F.M.: Fine measurement.

F.O.B. FREIGHT ALLOWED: The same as F.O.B. named inland carrier,
except the seller pays the freight charges of the inland carrier.

F.O.B. FREIGHT PREPAID: The same as F.O.B. named inland carrier,
except the seller pays the freight charges of the inland carrier.

F.O.B. NAMED INLAND CARRIER: Seller must place the goods on the
named carrier at the specified inland point and obtain a bill of
lading. The buyer pays for the transportation.

F.O.B. NAMED PORT OF EXPORTATION: Seller is responsible for
placing the goods at a named point of exportation at the seller’s
expense. Some European buyers use this form when they actually
mean F.O.B. vessel.

F.O.B. VESSEL: Seller is responsible for goods and preparation
of export documentation until actually placed aboard the vessel.

f.a.a.: Free of all average.

f.a.s.: Free alongside ship.

f.c.s.: Free of capture and seizure.

f.d.: Free discharge

f.f.a.: Free from average.

f.i.a.: Full interest admitted.

f.i.w.: Free in wagon.

f.o.w.: First open water.

FOREIGN BRANCH OFFICE: A sales (or other) office maintained in a
foreign country and staffed by direct employees of the exporter.

FOREIGN FREIGHT FORWARDER: A corporation carrying on the
business of forwarding who is not a shipper or consignee. The
foreign freight forwarder receives compensation from the shipper
for preparing documents and arranging various transactions
related to the international distribution of goods. Also, a
brokerage fee may be paid to the “forwarder” from steamship lines
if the forwarder performs at least two of the following services:
(1) coordination of the movement of the cargo to shipside; (2)
preparation and processing of the Ocean Bill of Lading; (3)
preparation and processing of dock receipts or delivery orders;
(4) preparation and processing of consular documents or export
declarations; (5) payment of the ocean freight charges on

FOREIGN SALES AGENT: An agent residing in a foreign country who
acts as a salesman for a domestic manufacturer.

FOREIGN TRADE ZONE ENTRY: A form declaring goods which are
brought duty-free into a Foreign Trade Zone for further
processing or storage and subsequent exportation and/or

FOUL BILL OF LADING: A receipt for goods issued by a carrier
bearing a notation that the outward containers or the goods have
been damaged.

fr. & c.c.: Free of riot and civil commotion.

FREE ALONGSIDE (F.A.S.): (or free alongside steamer): The seller
must deliver the goods to a pier and place them within reach of
the ship’s loading equipment. The buyer arranges ship space and
informs the seller when and where the goods are to be placed.

FREE IN AND OUT (F.I.O.): Cost of loading and unloading a vessel
is borne by the charterer.

FREE OF CAPTURE AND SEIZURE (F.C. & S.): An insurance clause
providing that loss is not insured if due to capture, seizure,
confiscation and like actions, whether legal or not, or from such
acts as piracy, civil war, rebellion and civil strife.

FREE OF PARTICULAR AVERAGE (F.P.A.): A marine insurance clause
providing that partial loss or damage is not insured. American
condition (F.P.A.A.C.) — Partial loss not insured unless caused
by the vessel being sunk, stranded, burned, on fire, or in
collision. English conditions (F.P.A.E.C.) — Partial loss not
insured unless a result of the vessel being sunk, stranded,
burned, on fire, or in collision.

FREE OUT (F.O.): Cost of unloading a vessel is borne by the

FREE TRADE ZONE: An area to which goods may be imported for
processing and subsequent export on duty-free basis.

ft.: Foot.

G.T.: Gross ton (2240 lbs.)

GENERAL AVERAGE: A deliberate loss or damage to goods in the
face of a peril, which sacrifice is made for the preservation of
the vessel and other goods. The cost of the loss is shared by
the owners of all goods on board up to time of peril.

GENERAL LICENSE (EXPORT): Authorization to export without
specific documentary approval.

GENERAL LICENSE, LIMITED VALUE (GLV): Authorization to export a
limited value amount of a good without specific documentary Gram.

GROSS WEIGHT: Entire weight of goods, packing, and container,
ready for shipment.

hhd.: Hogshead.

ht.: Height.

inv.: Invoice.

IMMEDIATE TRANSPORTATION ENTRY: A customs form declaring goods
for transportation by a bonded carrier from a port of entry to a
bonded warehouse at an inland port, or another port of entry.

IMPORT MERCHANT: A merchant who buys overseas for his own
account for the purpose of later resale, handling all details of
import documentation and transportation. Usually the merchant is
specialized in one or two commodities.

IMPORT RATE: A rate established specifically for application on
import traffic and generally less, when so published, than a
domestic rate.

IMPORTER DISTRIBUTOR: A merchant who imports goods, usually on
an exclusive territory arrangement, maintains an inventory and,
through a sales staff, sells to retailers.

INDENT: A requisition for goods, enumerating conditions of the
sale. Acceptance of an indent by a seller constitutes his
agreement to the conditions of the sale.

INDIRECT EXPORTING: Sale by the exporter to the buyer through a
domestically located intermediary.

INLAND CARRIER: A transportation line which hauls export or
import traffic between ports and inland points.

outside the territory of the United States, including operations
between U.S. points separated by foreign territory or major
expanses of international waters.

kg.: Kilogram.

L.: ú

L.A.: Letter of authority.

L.& D.: Loss and damage.

L.& R.: Lake and rail.

L/C: Letter of Credit.

L.C.L.: Less than carload, also less than containerload.

lat.: Latitude.

LAY DAYS: The dates between which a chartered vessel is to be
available in port for loading of cargo.

LEGAL WEIGHT: The weight of the goods plus any immediate
wrappings which are sold along with the goods; e.g., the weight
of a tin can as well as its contents. (See Net Weight).

LETTER OF CREDIT (L/C): A method of payment for goods in which
the buyer establishes his credit with a local bank, clearly
describing the goods to be purchased, the price, the
documentation required and a limit for completion of the
transaction. Upon receipt of documentation, the bank is either
paid by the buyer or takes title to the goods themselves and
proceeds to transfer funds to the seller. The banks insist upon
exact compliance with the terms of the sale, and will not pay if
there are discrepancies.

ldg.: Loading.

ltge.: Lighterage.

MANUFACTURER’S EXPORT AGENT: A firm which acts as an export
sales agent for several non-competing manufacturers. Business is
transacted under the name of the agent firm.

MARINE INSURANCE: An insurance which will compensate the owner
of goods transported overseas in the event of loss which cannot
be legally recovered from the carrier.

Mdse.: Merchandise.

N.O.E.: Not otherwise enumerated.

N.O.H.P.: Not otherwise herein provided.

N.O.I.B.N.: Not otherwise indicated by number; not otherwise
indexed by name.

N.O.S.: Not otherwise specified.

N.S.P.F.: Not specifically provided for.

NET WEIGHT (ACTUAL NET WEIGHT): Weight of the goods alone
without any immediate wrappings; e.g., the weight of the contents
of a tin can without the weight of the can. (See Legal Weight).

consolidator of small shipments in ocean trade, generally
soliciting business and arranging for or performing
containerization functions at the port.

O/A: Open account.

O.& R.: Ocean and rail.

O/N: Order notify.

O.S.& D.: Over, short and damage.

o.t.: On truck or railway.

P.A.: Particular average.

P.D.: Per diem.

P.W.: Packed weight.

PARCEL RECEIPT: Receipt given by a steamship company for a
parcel shipment.

PARTICULAR AVERAGE: Partial loss or damage to goods.

PERILS OF THE SEA: Those causes of loss of goods for which the
carrier is not legally liable. The elemental risks of ocean

PORT OF ENTRY: A port at which foreign goods are admitted into
the receiving country.

PORT MARKS: An identifying set of letters, numbers and/or
geometric symbols followed by the name of the port of
destination, which are placed on export shipments. Foreign
government requirements may be exceedingly strict in the matter
of port marks.

Ppd.: Prepaid.

PRIVATE CODE: A secret code system devised to conceal the
contents of a message and to reduce the number of words required
in a cablegram.

QUOTA: The quantity of goods which may be imported without
restriction or additional duties or taxes.

QUOTATION: An offer to sell goods at a stated price and under
stated terms.

R.& O.: Rail and ocean.

R.C.& L.: Rail, canal and lake.

R.I.T.: Refining in transit.

R.& L.: Rail and lake.

Refg.: Refrigerating, refrigeration.

S.C.& S.: Strapped, corded and sealed.

S/D: Sight draft.

S.D.D.: Store door delivery.

S.L.& C.: Shipper’s load and count.

S.L.& T.: Shipper’s load and tally.

S.O.: Ship’s option; shipping order; sellers option.

S.S.: Shipside.

S/S: Steamship.

S.T.: Short ton 2000 lbs.

S.U.C.L.: Set up carload.

S.U.L.C.L.: Set up in less than carload.

SCHEDULE B: Refers to “Schedule B, Statistical Classification of
Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the United

SHIPPER’S EXPORT DECLARATION: A form required by the Treasury
Department and completed by a shipper showing the value, weight,
consignee, destination, etc., of export shipments as well as
Harmonized Schedule B (see above) identification number.

sld.: Sailed.

s.p.d.: Shipped.

STEAMSHIP CONFERENCE: A group of vessel operators joined
together for the purpose of establishing freight rates. A
shipper may receive reduced rates if the shipper enters into a
contract to ship on vessels of Conference members only.

STERLING BLOC: The British Commonwealth countries which fixed
the price of sterling used in foreign exchange. With a fixed
price, sterling was not readily convertible to other currencies.
This resulted in trade within the Bloc being favored.

Stds.: Standards.

str.: Steamer.

referring to an insurance clause excluding insurance of loss
caused by labor disturbances, riots and civil commotions or any
person engaged in such actions.

SUE AND LABOR CLAUSE: A provision in marine insurance obligating
the assured to do those things necessary after a loss to prevent
further loss and to act in the best interests of the insurer.

s.v.: Sailing vessel.

SWITCH TRANSACTIONS: The practice of exporting (or importing)
goods through an intermediary country to final destinations.
This is done when the destination country is short of U.S.
dollars and the intermediary country has available U.S. dollars
and is willing to exchange for the destination country’s currency
on goods. Switch transactions must be performed within the
various laws concerning export licenses.

TARE WEIGHT: The weight of packing and containers without the
goods to be shipped.

t.l.o.: Total loss only.

TONNE (METRIC TON): 1000 Kilograms (2204 lbs).

which are entering the United States (for example from Canada)
for the purpose of exportation through a U.S. port. Carriers and
any warehouse must be bonded.

val.: Value.

Ves.: Vessel.

W/B: Waybill.

WAR RISK INSURANCE: Separate insurance coverage for loss of
goods which results from any act of war. This insurance is
necessary during peacetime due to objects, such as floating
mines, left over from previous wars. War Risk Insurance in the
United States is underwritten exclusively through the American
Cargo War Risk Reinsurance Exchange, a group formed to share the
extreme losses possible.

War/Strike Clause: An insurance provision that covers loss due
to war and/or strike.

WAREHOUSE ENTRY: A form declaring goods imported and placed in a
bonded warehouse. Duty payment may not be required until the
goods are withdrawn for consumption.

WEATHER WORKING DAY: A day when reasonable weather conditions
prevail to allow normal working to the vessel.

corporation whose business is done in any country of North,
South, or Central America or the West Indies, and which usually
receives certain tax advantages.

WITH PARTICULAR AVERAGE (W.P.A.): An insurance term meaning that
partial loss or damage to goods is insured. Generally must be
caused by sea water. May have a minimum percentage of damage
before payment. May be extended to cover loss by theft,
pilferage, delivery, leakage, and breakage.

Y/A: York/Antwerp Rules.

About author

SMB Reviews
SMB Reviews 473 posts

SMBReviews is committed to providing small and mid-sized business owners with the information and resources they need to select the best service or product for their company.

You might also like


Improving Your ECommerce Website in 5 Steps

To say that the average consumer has a short attention span is an understatement. One of the most frustrating aspects of managing the online division of any business is that


5 Ways To Boost Content Engagement on Your Website

A lot of Internet marketing gurus throw around “engagement” this, “KPI” that and “analytics” the other thing without ever really explaining what these terms even mean, never mind what the


Top Ways to Develop an Effective Social Media Presence for Your Small Business

 While social media alone isn’t enough to fully leverage the power of the internet, it’s playing an increasingly important role. However, due to its unguided nature, the social media world


No Comments Yet!

You can be first to comment this post!